Blood Flashcards Preview

Human Anatomy & Physiology 2 > Blood > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood Deck (105):
1

The circulating transport system includes (3)

-heart (pump)
-blood vessels (conducting system)
-blood (fluid medium)

2

Functions of the Blood (3)

transport
regulate
protection

3

Characteristics of Blood (2)

viscous liquid (blood is thicker than water)
slightly alkaline (7.45:arteries and 7.35:veins)

4

Blood is a specialized type of ____ _____

connective tissue

5

Blood is made up of (2)

plasma
formed elements (RBCs, WBCs, platelets)

6

When you centrifuge blood, what is on the bottom? middle?top?

RBCs (45% of blood)-BOTTOM
Buffy coat (less than 1%)-MIDDLE
Plasma (55% of blood)-TOP

7

Erythrocytes also known as (2)

hematocrit
Red blood cells

8

Buffy coat contains (2)

leukocytes and platelets

9

What does plasma contain? (3)

water
dissolved plasma proteins
other solutes

10

3 Classes of Plasma Proteins

albumins (60%)
globulins(35%)
fibrinogen(4%)

11

Albumin (4)

holds water in the circulatory system
pH buffers
transport proteins (FAs, thyroid hormones, steroid hormones)
made by the liver

12

Globulins (2)

transport globulins made by liver (hormone binding proteins, apoliproteins, steroid binding proteins)
immunoglobins

13

Fibinogen (3)

most numerous of the clotting protein
produce long sticky, insoluble strands of fibrin
made by the liver

14

serum

liquid component of blood without the clotting factor

15

antiserum

antibodies against "something" is found in the liquid component of the blood

16

origins of plasma proteins (3)

90% made by the liver
antibodies made by plasma cells (WBCs)
peptide hormones made by endocrine organs

17

Nonprotein components of plasma (4)

nitrogenous compounds
nutrients
oxygen and carbon dioxide
electrolytes

18

formation of formed elements

hemopoiesis (how blood cells are formed)

19

process of hemopoiesis (2)

1. Hemocytoblast form in the blood islands of the yolk sac
2. Second population of cells called hemanigioblast is formed

20

Where are hemanigioblast located in the embryo?

at the forming aorta and heart

21

What does the hemanigioblast give rise to? (2)

endothelium stem cells->blood vessel formation
hemocytoblast ->product RBCs, WBC, and platelets

22

Hemocytoblasts can be divided into what 2 groups?

-lymphoid stem cells (produce lymphocytes-WBCs)
-myeloid stem cells (produce RBCs, Granulocytes, Platelets)

23

What are the 3 types of formed elements?

Erythrocytes (RBCs)
Leukocytes (WBCs)
Platelets

24

RBCs make up ____ of blood formed elements

99.9%

25

What does the RBCs count?normal?

report the number of RBCs in 1 microliter of whole blood
4.5-6.3 in males
4.2-5.5 in females due to periodic menstrual losses

26

Structure of RBCs

small and highly specialized biconcave disc (thin in the middle and thick on the edges)

27

Importance of RBCs shape and size (3)

high surface to volume ratio (quickly absorb and release O2)
discs form stacks (flow through narrow blood vessels)
discs bend and flex entering small capillaries

28

rouleaux

stacking of RBCs

29

What are the functions of RBCs (2)

both which are roles of hemoglobin:
transport of gases
pH regulation

30

Hemoglobin is a complex ______ structure. It consists 4 ____ each with a heme in the middle containing ____ made from pyrrole rings. This component is what in fact binds oxygen.

quaternary; subunits; iron

31

oxyHb (3)

found with high oxygen levels
Hb bound to oxygen
almost 100% that leaves lungs is in this form

32

deoxyHb (2)

found with low oxygen levels
Hb releases oxygen

33

carbaminoHb (2)

found with low oxygen levels and high carbon dioxide levels
Hb releases oxygen and binds carbon dioxide and takes it to the lungs

34

What form of Hb is found in embryos? What is the significance?

fetal Hb; the 2 beta chains are replaced with gamma chains

35

Which Hb has a high affinity for oxygen?

Fetal Hb

36

polycythemia

an excess of red blood cells

37

primary polycythemia

cancer of erythropoietic cell line in red bone marrow (hemocrit 80%)

38

secondary polycythemia

from dehydration, emphysema, high altitude

39

What are the 3 dangers of polycythemia?

-increased blood:
volume
pressure
viscosity (makes heart work harder)

40

anemia

inadequate erythropoiesis or Hb synthesis

41

What are the causes of anemia? (4)

inadequate Vit B12
iron deficiency
kidney failure
aplastic anemia (no RBCs at all)

42

hemolytic anemia

RBCs start to burst

43

low amounts of vitamin B12

pernicious anemia

44

What are the effects of anemia? (3)

tissue hypoxia and necrosis
low blood osmolarity
low blood viscosity

45

hypoxia

tissue not getting the proper amount of O2

46

sickle cell disease

hereditary Hb defect that is a recessive allele that modifies Hb structure

47

erthropoiesis

red blood cell formation
stem cell matures to become a RBC

48

RBCs lack (3); what does this mean?

nuclei
mitochondria
ribosomes
they are unable to make repairs

49

Where does erythropoiesis occur?in adults? children?

in red bone marrow; spongy bone; marrow cavity of long bones

50

stages of erythropoiesis? (5)

proerythroblast
erythroblast
normoblast
reticulocyte
mature RBC

51

proerythroblast

located in the bone marrow
undergoes mitosis (growth and divide) to become erythroblast

52

erythroblast

located in the bone marrow
actively synthesizing proteins (heme)

53

normoblast

located in the bone marrow
an erythroblast that has stopped transcription and preparing to eject the nucleus

54

reticulocyte (2)

located in the bone marrow but later released into the blood
forms from the normoblast following the ejection of the nucleus and other organelles
continues to produce Hb using ribosomes and mRNA

55

mature RBC

located in the blood
reticulocyte stops producing more Hb

56

What hormone regulates erythropoiesis?

erythropoietin

57

When is erythropoietin secreted? (2)

kidneys and liver when O2 in peripheral tissues is low
secreted by kidneys when BP drops

58

What does erythropoietin stimulate? (2)

cell division in proerythroblast
stimulate Hb synthesis

59

What are the requirements for erthropoiesis? (7)

erythropoietin
amino acids
iron and copper
vit C (needed for enzyme function)
vit B12 (needed for nucleotide synthesis)
vit B6 (needed for enzyme function)
folic acid (needed for nucleotide synthesis)

60

How are RBCs recycled? (2)

90% engulfed by macrophages
10% undergo hemolysis in the blood

61

What do macrophages monitor in RBCs? What happens when they drop?

spectrin level; they loose flexibility and are trapped in connective tissue (reticular)

62

What 2 components do macrophages break Hb into?

globular proteins->amino acids
heme->biliverdin (release iron)

63

What 2 storage proteins is iron bound to?transferred on?why?

feritin and hemosiderin; transferrin; because it is very reactive

64

Biliverdin is converted to ____ while in the macrophage

bilirubin

65

What happens when bilirubin is excreted into the blood from the macrophage? (5)

1. binds to albumin
2. removed from the blood by the liver
3. excreted by the liver as part of bile
4. converted by intestinal bacteria
5. eliminated as feces

66

Jaundice

accumulation of bilirubin in fatty tissue
results from exceeding the capacity of albumin to carry bilirubin in the blood

67

white blood cells do not have ______; but they do have ___ and ____

Hb; nuclei and other organelles

68

What are the functions of WBCs? (3)

defend against pathogens
remove toxins and wastes
attack abnormal cells

69

How do WBCs circulate? (4)

migrate out of the bloodstream
have amoeboid movement
attracted to chemical stimuli
some are phagocytic

70

Macrophages are termed ____ when they are in the blood stream.

monocytes

71

3 Types of Granulocytes?2 Types of Agranulocytes?

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
monocytes, lymphocytes

72

neutrophils (2)

most numerous
have lots of nuclei

73

Functions of neutrophils? (5)

very active and mobile
first to attack bacteria
Phagocytes
release prostaglandins and leukotrienes (arachidonic acid)
degranulation

74

What does the release of prostaglandins and leukotrienes stimulate? (3)

inflammation
restrict the spread of pathogens
attract other WBCs

75

degranulation

granules from cytoplasm fuse with phagosome

76

What do the granules contain on granulocytes? (2)

bactericides (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide)
defensins (porins; peptides)

77

eosinphils (2)

attack large parasites
help with allergies

78

Functions of eosinphils? (3)

phagocytic
excrete toxic compounds to "harass" parasites
attracted to site of injury (to control inflammation)

79

basophils (2)

small
accumulate in damaged tissue

80

Functions of basophils (2) also functions of mast cells

release histamine->dilate blood vessels
release heparin->prevent blood clotting

81

Functions of macrophages?

phagocytize large particles and pathogens
secrete substances that attract immune system cells to injured area

82

What is the purpose of fibroblast?

help lay down scar

83

lymphocytes (2)

migrate in and out of the blood
are part of the body's SPECIFIC defense system

84

What are the 3 classes of lymphocytes?

T cells
B cells
NK cells (natural killer)

85

T cells (3)

develop in the thymus
cell mediated immunity
attack foreign cells directly

86

B cells (3)

develop in the bone marrow
differentiate into plasma cells
synthesize antibodies

87

natural killer cells

detect and destroy abnormal tissue cells

88

leukopenia

low WBC count

89

leukocytosis

high WBC count

90

leukemia

cancer of the hemopoietic tissue (uncontrolled WBC production)

91

platelets

cell fragments involved in human clotting

92

thrombocytopenia

abnormally low platelet count

93

thrombocytosis

abnormally high platelet count

94

Functions of platelets (6)

release clotting chemicals
actively contract tissue after clot formation
temporarily patch damaged vessel walls
initiate formation of clot dissolving enzyme
phagocytize bacteria (do not kill it)
attract Neutrophils and monocytes to site of inflammation

95

megakkaryocytes

giant cells
located in bone marrow
shed cytoplasm into platelets

96

hemostasis

the cessation of bleeding

97

What are the 3 steps of hemostasis?

vascular spasm
platelet plug
coagulation

98

Steps of vascular spasm and platelet plug? (5)

1. damaged blood vessel exposes collagen
2. platelet attach and become sticky (platelet plug)
3. attached platelets release chemicals (serotonin)
4. Serotonin triggers vascular spasm
5. chemicals also attract more platelets

99

the spasm is also triggered by what?

pain receptors on blood vessels and damage to smooth muscle

100

Steps of coagulation (6)

1. damaged tissue release thromboplastin
2. thromboplastin interacts with PF3 =protrombin activator
3. protrombin activator converts prothrombin->thrombin
4. thrombin converts fibrinogen->fibrin
5. fibrin is insoluble and stick to form a mesh to trap formed elements
6. platelets contain actomyosin which pulls edges together

101

What helps to prevent inappropriate clotting? (3)

platelet repulsion
thrombin dilution
natural anticoagulants

102

thrombosis

abnormal clotting in unbroken vessels

103

embolism

clot traveling in a vessel

104

infarction

may occur if clot blocks blood supply to an organ

105

prostacyclin

inhibits platelet aggregation