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Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (112):
1

Tissues are organized into _______

organs

2

What are the 4 types of tissues?

Connective
Epithelial
Nervous
Muscle

3

Why is it vital for cells to communicate?

to preserve the functions of each organ to maintain homeostasis

4

What are the 6 forms of intracellular communication?

1. Synaptic
2. Juxtacrine
3. Autocrine
4. Direct
5. Paracrine
6. Endocrine

5

Direct communication (2)

-mediated by gap junctions that contain connexins (small proteins)
-pores in the cell membrane that allow small chemical signals to move cell to cell

6

Paracrine communication (2)

-mediated by local hormones (cytokines)
-secreted into intracellular fluid to affect nearby target cells

7

Autocrine communication (2)

-mediated by local hormones (cytokines)
-secreted by the cell that is also the target cell

8

Juxtacrine communication (3)

-mediated by local hormones (cytokines)
-held on the plasma membrane and target cell binds
-involved in growth and differentiation

9

Synaptic communication (3)

-mediated by neurotransmitters
-released by presynaptic neurons that travel across a gap to a postsynatic cell
-travel long distances

10

Endocrine communication (2)

-mediated by hormones
-secreted into extracellular fluid before entering into capillaries to travel to target cells

11

Capillaries are ______

permeable

12

All communication except for direct communication require ____

a target cell to express receptors made of protein

13

signal transduction

the changes that occur between the binding of the hormone to the change that occurs when the cell is activated

14

What are the 3 components of the endocrine system?

-produce hormones from endocrine glands or tissue
-hormones are secreted into the blood stream
-target cells have receptors for the the hormones

15

endocrine vs. exocrine

exo: has ducts that carry secretion to the surface; the product that is released as extracellular effects
endo: no ducts; release hormones into highly permeable capillaries

16

nervous system in comparison to endocrine system (4)

-both electrical and chemical communication
-reacts quickly
-response to long term stimulus declines
-area effected is targeted and specific

17

endocrine system in comparison to nervous system (4)

-only chemical
-reacts slowly (effects continue for weeks)
-response to long term stimulus persists
-area effected is general and widespread

18

several chemicals function as _____ and _____

hormones and neurotransmitters

19

neuroendocrine cells

neurons that secrete hormones

20

What is controlled by the endocrine system (7)

-reproduction
-growth
-development
-activation of body defenses
-salt and water balance
-nutrient balance
-cellular metabolism

21

10 major endocrine organs

-hypothalamus
-pituitary gland
-pineal gland
-thyroid gland
-parathyroid gland
-thymus
-adrenal gland
-pancreas
-ovaries
-testes

22

hypothalamus

the control center of the endocrine system (sensory, emotional, and outside/inside connections)

23

What are the 3 roles of the hypothalamus?

-release of hormones that control anterior pituitary
-produces and controls the release of oxytocin and ADH
-controls the release of E and NE from adrenal medulla

24

pituitary gland is also known as _______

hypophysis

25

Where is the pituitary gland located?

in the sella turcica of sphenoid bone

26

What are the 2 parts of the pituitary gland?

-anterior (adenohypophysis)
-posterior (neurohypophysis)

27

Where does the adenohypophysis arise from? neurohypophysis?

outgrowth of the pharnyx (hypophyseal pouch); the brain

28

portal system

two capillary beds in a row

29

hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system

hypothalamus and anterior pituitary have vascular connection

30

trophic hormones

target other endocrine glands

31

What are the 4 trophic hormones? (all in the anterior lobe)

-FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
-LH (luteinizing hormone)

-TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)

-ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)

32

gonadotropins? (2)

FSH and LH

33

What are the 2 non trophic hormones?

-PRL (prolactin)

-GH (growth hormone)

34

FSH (3)

follicle stimulating hormone
-secreted by the gonadotropic cells
-stimulates production of egg and sperm cells

35

LH (3)

luteinizing hormone
-secreted by the gonadotropic cells
-stimulates hormone production (females: progesterone and estrogen) (males: testosterone)

36

TSH (3)

thyroid stimulating hormone
-secreted by thyrotropes
-stimulates growth of gland and secretion of TH (T3 and T4)

37

ACTH

adrenocorticotropic hormone
-regulates response to stress (adrenal cortex)

38

corticosteroids (2)

-regulate energy in the body during stress
-from adrenal cortex regulates glucose, fat and protein metabolism

39

PRL (3)

prolactin
-secreted by lactotropes
female:milk production after delivery
male: increase LH' thus increasing testosterone

40

What hormone is released after an orgasm giving a calming effect?

prolactin

41

GH (4)

growth hormone
-promotes tissue growth
-mitosis and cellular differentiation
-stimulates the liver to produce somatomedins

42

GH: protein synthesis

increase DNA transcription for increase of mRNA production

43

GH: lipid metabolism

stimulates free fatty acids and glycerol release from adipocytes

44

GH: CHO metabolism

glucose sparing for nervous system

45

GH :electrolyte balance

promotes salt retention

46

GH: childhood and adolescence (3)

GH is at its highest
bone, cartilage, and muscle growth
stimulates growth of epiphyseal plate

47

GH: Adulthood

increase osteoblastic (building) activity and appositional (width) growth

48

______ fluctuate throughout the day? When are they highest? lowest?

GH
highest: during deep sleep and high protein meal
lowest: after high CHO meal

49

posterior pituitary

contains a collection of axons

50

The paraventricular nucleus in the hypothalamus releases _____; while the supraoptic nucleus releases _____

oxytocin; antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

51

ADH

target the kidneys to increase water retention

52

Oxytocin (2)

labor contractions and lactation in females
sperm transport in males

53

anterior lobe control is determined via ______ while posterior lobe control is determined via ____

hormones; reflexes (timing)

54

suckling infant->stimulate nerve endings->hypothalamus->_______->________->milk secretion

posterior lobe; oxytocin
(positive feedback)

-higher brain centers start process early

55

dehydration increases osmolarity of blood; _____ is released

ADH (water retention)

56

pineal gland (3)

produces serotonin in the day and melatonin at night
receives input from the retina
regulate timing in puberty

57

thymus

superior to the heart
secretes hormones to regulate development of T-lymphocytes

58

thyroid gland (2)

largest endocrine gland; high rate of blood flow
triggers release of GH

59

colliod

a suspension of amino acids

60

C cell

calcitonin produced that decrease Ca in blood; bone formation

61

PTH

increases blood Ca levels
promotes synthesis of calcitriol by kidneys

62

Adrenal Medulla origin? Cortex?

neural in origin; epithelial

63

adrenal medulla?

sympathetic (fight or flight) ganglion that consists of chromaffin cells

64

chromaffin cells

modified neurons (no projections)

65

What does the adrenal medulla stimulate?

the release of catacholamines (E, NE, and a little dopamine)

66

Stress causes medullary cells to stimulate ______

cortex

67

3 layers of adrenal cortex

zona glomerulosa (outer)
zona fasciculata (middle)
zona reticularis (inner)

68

zona glomerulosa (3)

mineralocorticoids
-control electrolyte balance
-aldosterone promotes (3)Na+ retention and (2)K+ excretion

69

zona fasciculata (3)

glucocorticoid
-allows the body to deal with stress and heal
-stimulates fat and protein catabolism

70

zona reticularis (2)

sex steroids
-promotes testosterone in females

71

pancreatic endocrine hormones

islets

72

insulin in pancreatic hormones (5)

beta cells
secrete after CHO meal and increase Glu levels
stimulate Glu and amino acid uptake
nutrient storage
antagonize glucagon

73

glucagon in pancreatic hormones (2)

alpha cells
secrete during fasting (between meals) or low CHO and high protein diets

74

somatostatin in pancreatic hormones

delta cells
secrete with rise in blood Glu and amino acids after meal

75

hyperglycemic hormones raise blood glucose (5)

GH
E
NE
glucagon
glucocortiocoid (zona fasciculata)

76

hypoglycemic hormoes lower blood glucose (1)

insulin

77

follicles of the ovaries are surrounded by _______

granulosa cells

78

granulosa produces what during the first half of the menstrual cycle

estradiol

79

corpus luteum

forms from the follicle after ovulation
produces estradiol and progesterone

80

What are the purposes of estradiol and progesterone? (3)

development of female reproductive system
regulate menstrual cycle, sustain pregnancy
prepare mammary glands for lactation

81

the ___ ___ in the testes produce testosterone and estrogen

interstitial cells

82

What is the function of testosterone? (2)

development of male reproductive system
sustain sperm production and sex drive

83

What are 6 other organs with endocrine functions?

heart
kidney
skin
liver
stomach and intestines
placenta

84

What 3 classes can hormones be classified in?

lipid
amino acid
peptide

85

lipid derivatives of hormones (2)

eicosanoids (derived from arachidonic acids)
steroid (similar to cholesterol)

86

amino acid derivatives of hormones (2)

tyrosine
tryptophan

87

tyrosine and be divided into _____ and ______

thyroid hormone (2 tyrosines; dipeptide)
catecholamines (monoamines)

88

monoamines and peptides are _______; they are transported via _____

hydrophilic; blood

89

steroids and thyroid hormones are _____; they must be ____ to be transported

hydrophobic; bound

90

bound hormone

protects hormone from enzyme and kidney infection

91

unbound hormone

leaves capillaries to reach the target cell

92

transport proteins in blood:
albumin, thyretin, and TGB bind to _____
steroid hormone binds to _______
aldosterone _____

thyroid hormone
globulins
no transport protein

93

humoral stimuli

changing blood levels to control hormone release

94

neural stimuli

nervous system
sympathetic and parasympathetic influence to control hormone release

95

hormonal stimuli

positive and negative feedback to control hormone release

96

dropping of blood Ca levels stimulates what?
This is an example of _____ stimuli

parathyroid hormone
humoral

97

Oxytocin (suckling of baby) is an example of ____ stimuli

neural

98

Control of thyroid hormone release is an an example of ____ stimuli

hormonal

99

hormone receptors can be found both ___ and ____

on the surface and intracelluarally

100

hydrophobic hormones bind where

penetrate the plasma membrane and enter the nucleus (intracellular)

101

hydrophilic hormones bind where

bind to the cell surface receptors

102

Example of Thyroid Hormone
With hydrophobic hormones the hormone passes through the plasma membrane into the nucleus to bind receptors forming the ______. This then ____ into ____. Basically ____ ____ happens

hormone receptor complex; translocates; DNA; gene activation

103

What other effects does TH have (2)

bind to mitochondria receptors- increase aerobic respiration
bind to ribosomes-increase protein synthesis

104

Steps for second messenger system for hydrophilic hormones (5)

1. hormone binds activate G protein
2. G protein binds GTP
3. produce cAMP
4. Activates PKA
5. Activates enzymes

105

What are some metabolic reactions that can occur from second messenger system? (4)

change protein synthesis
activate or inactivate enzyme
trigger secretion
change membrane potentials

106

How can you trigger the termination of signal for hydrophilic hormones? (3)

stop release of hormone
deactivate G protein by hydrolysis
breakdown cAMP

107

What are some advantages for second messenger system? (3)

amplification
regulation
cross talk between systems

108

UP regulation includes (2)

increase synthesis of receptors
reduce rate of degradation of receptors

109

DOWN regulation includes (2)

reduce synthesis of receptors
increase rate of degradation of receptors

110

What types of effects can hormones have when they interact?(3)

permissive
synergistic
antagonistic

111

permissive effects

additive; 2 dif hormones using the same second messenger system

112

synergistic effects

exponential; 2 dif hormones using dif second messenger systems