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Flashcards in Male Reproduction Deck (74):
1

sexual reproduction (3)

-offspring has 2 parents and receives genetic material from both
-genetic diversity
-foundation for survival and evolution

2

primary sex organs

produce gametes

3

secondary sex characteristics

develop at puberty

4

week 5-6 (3)

-develop of fetus is sexually undifferentiated
-contains 2 ducts
-undeveloped gonads

5

what are the 2 ducts?

-Wolffian duct (mesonephric)
-Mullerian duct (parasympathetic)

6

wolffian duct system

-develops in male; degenerates in female

7

mullerian duct system

-develop in female; degenerates in male

8

chromatids are ________; chromosomes code for the same ____

identical; trait

9

what controls development or degeneration of a duct system?

Y chromosome contains the sex determining region (SRY)

10

SRY gene

codes for transcription factor (testis-determining factor)

11

testis determining factor activates

-androgen receptors-> stimulates wolffian duct system
also mullerian inhibiting factor

12

the mullerian inhibiting factor

-blocks the production of aromatase

13

aromatase

Testosterone converted to estradiol

14

week 8

the correct duct system is developed, but the external organs do not match

15

what does the external genitalia contain (3)

-phallus or genital tubule
-2 urogential folds
-2 labioscrotal folds

16

phallus or gential tubule//male? female?

male->penis formation
female->clitoris

17

urogenital folds// male? female?

male->urethra
female->labia minor and hymen

18

labioscrotal folds//male? female?

male->scrotum
female->labia majora

19

week 9

begin to show sexual differentiation

20

week 12

distinctly male or female

21

androgen insensitivity syndrome (2)

-genetically male
-testosterone secreted, but the androgen receptors are absent

22

scrotum

regulates temperature of the testis

23

testes begin their development near the _____. and begins in weeks _____

kidney; 6-10

24

gubernaculum (2)

-extends from gonad to abdominopelvic scrotum
-guides testes to scrotum

25

cremaster muscle

pulls testes close to body

26

dartos muscle

wrinkles skin reducing surface area of scrotum

27

what is responsible for the countercurrent heat exchange needed by the testes?

pampiniform plexus

28

pampiniform plexus (3)

-countercurrent heat exchanger cooles arterial blood entering testis
-low flow rate
-low O2 levels

29

___ divides testes into compartments containing the seminiferous tubules

septa

30

seminferous tubules

site of sperm production

31

lineage of sperm production (5)

spermatogonia->primary spermatocyte-> secondary spermatocyte->spermatids->sperm

32

sertoli cells (3)

-blood testes barrier
-produce androgen binding protein
-nurse cell

33

leydig cells (2)

-between seminiferous tubules
-produce androgen

34

cells that produce androgen (2)

-serotoli
-leydig

35

route sperm uses to exit the penis? (7)

seminiferous tubules->rete testis->efferent ductule->epididymis->vas deferens->ejaculartory duct->urethra

36

epididymis

site of sperm maturation and storage

37

accessory glands of the male reproductive system (3)

-seminal vesicle
-bulbourethral gland
-prostate gland

38

seminal vesicle (3)

-viscous yellow fluid
-last fluid added to semen
-60% volume of semen

39

prostate gland (2)

-thin milky fluid
-30% volume of semen

40

bulbourethral gland

produces alkaline (basic) secretion before ejaculation

41

semen is mostly composed of ?

-seminal vesicle fluid (60%)
-sperm (10%)
-prostatic fluid (30%)

42

other components of sperm (5)

-calcium phosphate ions
-fructose and citrate
-seminogelin
-serine protease
-prostaglandins

43

what allows the penis to erect? (2)

-corpus sponginosum
-corpus carvernosa

44

viagra blocks the enzyme _____ which break down ____

phosphodiesterases (PDE5); cGMP

45

male sexual response (4)

excitment->orgasm->resolution->refractory period

46

erection:
when ___, the arterial branches feeding the erectile tissues are ____, which constrict blood flow

flaccid; constricted

47

erection:
during sexual arousal ____ nerves trigger the release of ___ ___ which stimulates the production of cGMP in smooth muscle

parasympathetic; nitric oxide

48

erection:
cGMP triggers the relaxation of ______ in the arteries and send blood to the erectile tissue

smooth muscle

49

erection:
what helps the penis maintain erection

filled veins from the tissues

50

excitement:_______:orgasm:_____

parasympathetic; sympathetic

51

orgasm contains 2 components what are they?

-emission
-expulsion

52

emission (3)

-peristalic contractions of smooth muscle
-pushes sperm into the prostatic urethra
-squeezes fluid seminal vesicles and prostate

53

expolusion

-powerful rhythmic contractions of ischocavernosa and bulbospongious muscles
-pleasureable sensation (eleveated oxytocin)

54

ischocavernosus

stiffens the penis

55

bulbospongious

pushes the semen out of the urethra

56

resolution (2)

-blood flow to the penis slows
-follows after ejaculation

57

refractory period

period when you can attain second erection

58

mitosis produces

2 genetically identical daughter cell

59

meiosis produces

gametes

60

that is the importance of meiosis (2)

-reduce the chromosomal number in half
-introduces genetic variation

61

____ only undergoes mitosis

spermatogonium

62

sperm formation (2)

-takes 74 days
-begins around age 14

63

spermatogenesis (2)

-sperm formation
-occurs in the seminiferous tubules

64

spermiogenesis (2)

-spermatids->sperm
-is a mobile cell with 4 components

65

what are the 2 daughter cells produced from the spermatogonia?

type A:replacement for the spermatogonia via mitosis
type B: primary spermatocyte

66

Type B->
How many chromosomes?

-spermatocyte
-forms the secondary spermatocyte (23 chromosomes)

67

Secondary spermatocyte->
How many chromatids?

4 spermatids; 23 chromatids

68

all sperm undergoes ______

spermiogenesis

69

what are the 4 components of sperm?

-head (acrosomal cap;contains 23 chromatids)
-neck (contain centrioles)
-midpiece (contain mitochondria)
-tail (flagella)

70

testosterone during puberty?adulthood?

puberty: enlargement of secondary organs, stimulates erythropoiesis
adulthood: stimulates libido and spermatogenesis

71

gnRH (2)

-gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulates anterior pituitary to release FSH and LH
-starts puberty

72

FSH

follicle stimulating hormone
-stimulates sertoli cells to produce androgen binding protein

73

LH

luteinizing hormone
-stimulate Leydig cells to produce testosterone

74

testosterone inhibits?

gnRH release