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Human Anatomy & Physiology 2 > Renal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Renal Deck (88):
1

What are the components of the urinary system (4)

-paired kidneys
-paired ureters
-urinary bladder
-urethra

2

What are the 5 functions of the kidney?

-filter blood plasma
-regulates osmolarity of body fluids, BV, BP
-secretes renin and erthyropoietin
-detoxifies
-gluconeogenesis

3

The kidney filters the blood plasma by?

eliminating waste

4

What are the nitrogenous wastes removed by the kidney? (3)

-urea
-uric acid
-creatinine

5

How is urea produced?

proteins->amino acids-> NH2 removed->to form ammonia

liver converts to urea

6

uric acid is a ____ catabolism while creatinine is a ______ catabolism

nucleic acid; creatinine phosphate

7

when fluids leave the cardiovascular system, they go to?

kidneys

8

creatinine phosphate is an energy source stored in the?

muscle

9

uremia

toxic effects as wastes accumulate

10

What are the 4 systems used to excrete waste from body fluids?

-respiratory
-integumentary
-digestive
-urinary

11

kidneys are positioned ______; which means?

retroperitoneal; behind the lining of the abdominal wall

12

covering of the kidneys:renal fascia? adipose capsule?renal capsule?

renal: binds to the abdominal wall
adipose: cushions the kidney
renal: encloses kidney like cellophane wrap

13

what are the parts of the renal nephron? (3)

-corpuscle
-tubule
-collecting system

14

the functional unit of the kidney?

nephron

15

the renal corpuscle contains?

-glomerulus
-bowman's capsule

16

the portal system in the renal corpuscle contains?

vasa recta and peritubular capillaries

17

What are the supporting cells of the renal corpuscle?

mesangila cells

18

Which arteriole is biggest?

afferent

19

What are the layers of bowman's capsule? (3)

visceral
parietal
capsular

20

the renal tubule contains? (3)

-proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
-loop of henle
-distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

21

which convoluted tubule passes through the afferent and efferent arterioles?

DCT

22

The PCT and DCT is the site of? (2)

reabsorption
secretion

23

PCT reabsorbs (4)

-nutrients
-ions
-volume
-escaped plasma proteins

24

what is the purpose of the loop of henle?

to concentrate urine

25

DCT secretes? (2) reabsorbs? (2)

acid, drugs, toxins
K (selectively)

Na and Ca
water

26

what is the purpose of the papillary duct, calyx, and pelvis?

to direct urine towards the bladder

27

juxtaglomerular apparatus contains? (2)

distal tubule
afferent and efferent arterioles

28

what type of cells are in the juxtaglomerulus apparatus? (2)

juxtaglomerulus cells in the afferent arterioles
macula densa in the DCT

29

what is the function of the juxtaglomerulus cells?

to release renin and erythopoietin

30

what is the function of the macula densa cells of DCT?

chemoreceptors that are sensitive to changing sodium levels of the filtrate

31

macula densa:
a _____ in the osmolarity (sodium) triggers a release in renin, which then releases ___

decrease; aldosterone

32

what are the 2 types of the nephrons?

cortical
juxtamedullary

33

cortical nephrons represent ____ percent of nephrons and have ____ loop of henle

85%; short

34

juxtamedullary nephrons have ____ loop of henle and the corpuscle is located at ______ junction

long; cortex-medulla

35

what processes are required for urine formations? (3)

-glomerular filtration
-tubular reabsorption
-secretion

36

the kidneys are ___ percent of body weight, but use about ____ percent of oxygen at rest

1% and 20-25%

37

why is urine produced?

to maintain blood volume and composition

38

In glomerular filtration, there are filtration slits between ______. What type of basement membrane does it have?

podocytes (cells that wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus); lamina densa

39

the filtration membrane determines what stays and what can go. the basement membrane has the smallest _____. what determines the cutoff?

cutoff. plasma minus protein

40

glomerular filtration rate? how much is it?

total amount of filtrate formed per minute by the kidney; 125mL per minute

41

what 2 factors result in high GFR?

-glomerulus is fenestrated capillaries (PERMEABLE)
-blood pressure is 60mmHg (afferent arteriole)

42

GFR is controlled by the same forces that control filtration and reabsorption at the capillary bed? what are they?

hydrostatic pressure
osmotic pressure

43

If GFR is elevated?Below?

-can't absorb sufficient solutes and water
-blood levels of waste increase

44

GFR abnormalities
high GFR->
low GFR->

high: urine output rises->dehydration, electrolyte depletion
low: wastes reaborbed

45

regulation of GFR is achieved by adjusting___ _____.How is this achieved? (3)

blood pressure
-autoregulation
-hormonal regulation
-sympathetic regulation

46

autoregulation

the ability of the kidney to maintain a relatively stable GFR in spite of changes in MAP by changing arteriole diameter

47

if glomerular blood pressure increase, _____

afferent arteriole walls stretch and trigger smooth muscle to contract (relax efferent arteriole)

48

if glomerular blood pressure decrease, _______

drop the stretch in the afferent arteriole and it relaxes (constrict efferent arteriole)

49

Renin/Angiotensin II system

works to increase systemic blood volume and pressure to restore back to normal GFR

50

Renin is released when (3)

-drop in glomerular blood pressure
-low osmolarity of filtrate of DCT
-sympathetic activity to the JG apparatus

51

effects of renin at the peripheral capillary bed? (2)

-triggers vasocontriction and increase BP
-release of aldosterone (Na and water reaborption->increase BV and BP)

52

effects of renin at nephron?

constricts the efferent arterioles

53

effects at CNS?

-triggers release of ADH (antiduretic hormone; increase water reaborption)

54

atrial natriuretic peptide hormone is released to

lower blood volume and thus pressure

55

what are the effects of atrial natriuretic peptide hormone? (3)

-triggers dilation of afferent arteriole
-blocks affects of ADH
-elevated GFR->increase urine flow and lower BV and BP

56

Which type of regulation overrides all other forms of GFR regulation?

sympathetic

57

during low sympathetic activity?

release renin to increase GFR

58

during moderate sympathetic activity? (3)

-drop in urine production due to vasocontriction
-offset by autoregulation and hormonal regulation
-GFR is maintained

59

during high sympathetic activity? (3)

-NOT offset by autoregulation or hormonal regulation
-urine production approaches zero
-large drop in GFR

60

tubular reabsorption

removes useful solutes from the filtrate, and returns it back to the blood

61

tubular secretion

removes additional wastes from the blood, adds them to the filtrate

62

what gets reabsorbed back into the blood 100% during tubular reaborption?

glucose and amino acids

63

how is material returned to the peritubular capillaries?

diffusion and osmosis

64

why is movement into the peritubular capillaries easy? (3)

-high colloid osmotic pressure
-low blood pressure (narrow efferent arterioles)
-slow flow rate

65

PCT (2)

-reabsorbs a greater variety of chemical than other parts of the nephron
-reabsorbs 65-70% of filtrate to peritubular capillaries

66

transcellular route

through epithelial cells of PCT

67

paracellular route

between epithelial cells of PCT

68

during tubular reabsorption, the PCT reabsorbs what? (7)

-sodium (65%)
-glucose (100%)
-amino acid (100%)
-water (65-70%)
-cations
-anions
-nitrogenous wastes

69

tubular reabsorption of sodium?

active transport

70

tubular reabsorption of glucose and amino acid?

Na dependent translocator

71

what is the primary function of the loop of henle?

to enable the collecting duct to concentrate the urine an conserve water

72

Loop of Henle: recaptures ____ and returns it to the renal _____

NaCl; medulla

73

The descending limb of the loop of henle? (2)

-reabsorbs water but not salt
-tubular fluid is hypertonic

74

The ascending limb of the loop of henle? (3)

-reabsorbs Na+, K+, and Cl-
-impermeable to water
-tubular fluid is hypotonic

75

As you ____ from the cortex->medulla, the kidney becomes more....

saltier

76

role of the vasa recta?

-countercurrent exchange (descending picks up salts and ascending picks up water)
-opposite of loop of henle

77

what percentage of original volume is left after tubular reabsoption and secretion at the DCT?

10-15%

78

effects of aldosterone at the DCT?

-trigger the production and insertion of a sodium channel at basal membrane-> stimulate NaK ATPase

79

effects of calcium at the DCT?

-regulated by the parathyroid hormone and calcitriol-> stimulate production of Ca ATPase (1 Ca for 2 acids)

80

reabsorption at the collection system:
-Na?
-Water?
-Urea?

Na: aldosterone sensitive areas
water: antidiuretic sensitive area of the nephron
urea: collects at the bottom of the loop

81

tubular secretion from the peritubular capillaries into the tubule:
potassium?
hydrogen ion?

K: aldosterone sensitive
hydrogen ion:H+ goes into filtrate and exchange for Na
- aldosterone sensitive

82

normal volume of urine

1 to 2L per day of urine

83

polyuria

> 2L per day of urine

84

anuria

0 to 100 mL per day of urine

85

composition and properties of urine? (3)

-almost colorless
-acidic (4.5-8.2)
- odor (urea->ammonia)

86

diabetes mellitus I

can't produce insulin

87

diabetes mellitus II

-have lots of insulin, but body doesn't recognize it
-adult onset

88

diuretics
effects?
uses?

-urine output is increased, blood volume is decreased
-hypertension and congestive heart failure