Flashcards in Blood & Circulation Deck (63):
What are the fluid compartments within the body?
Intracellular fluidInterstitial fluidBlood plasmaTranscellular compartmentsExternal compartments
What are examples of transcellular fluid compartments?
Cerebrospinar fluid (CSF)Synovial fluid
What are examples of external compartments?
What are the consequences of fluid imbalance?
Too much - OedemaToo little - Dizziness, Eventual drop in blood pressure + coma
What are the most important fluid compartments?
Intracellular and extracellular
What does blood contain
Cells suspended in a protein rich liquid
What is blood plasma?
A protein rich liquid
What is the difference between plasma and serum?
Serum has liquid left after a clot has formed, plasma does not
What is the ratio of cells to plasma in blood?
45% cells; 55% plasma
How is the the contents of blood measured?
Haematocrit (Hct) or Packed Cell Volume (PCV)
What technique was used to obtain the reference ranges for the ratio of cells to plasma in blood?
What is more dense? plasma or red blood cells?
red blood cells
What are erythrocytes?
Red blood cells
What is the most abundant type of blood cell?
Erythrocytes / RBCs
What is the abundance of erythrocytes?
99.8% of all blood cells
What are the main properties of erythrocytes?
No nucleus, no organelles, packed with haemoglobin, biconcave disc morphology
What is the most abundance white blood cell?
What are leukocytes?
White blood cells
What are polymorphonuclear leukocytes?
What are the properties of neutrophils?
Highly motile, phagocytic, bacteriocidal
What is the first defence against infection in the blood?
What is the second most abundance type of white blood cell?
What is the difference between leukocytes and lymphocyes?
Leukocytes= WBCs (general name)Lymphocytes = Specific WBCs of which there are various types.
What is the importance of lymphocytes?
They are involved in the adaptive immune response
What is a monocyte?
A phagocytic cell involved in the immune response.When it migrates into tissues it is known as macrophage
What is the difference between monocytes and macrophages?
Location : Monocytes are found in the blood. Migration of monocytes into tissue causes them to be known as macrophages.
What is a eosinophil?
A secretory cell, important in the defence against parasites
What is a basophil?
Very similar to a eosinophil, it is a secretory cell important against parasites.It is also implicated in allergy
What is the difference between a basophil and mast cell?
Location: Basophils are in the bloodWhen basophils migrate into tissues, they are known as mast cells
What are platelets?
Subcellular fragments involved in blood clotting
True or false? There is more potassium inside of cells than outside?
True or false? There is more calcium outside of the cell than inside?
True or false? There is more -PO43- inside the cell than outside?
True or false? There is more protein outside of the cell than inside?
True or false? There is a higher osmolarity inside the cell than outside?
FALSE - the osmolarities are the same
What are the measures of solute particles?
Osmolarity and Osmolaltity
What is the difference between osmolarity and tonicity?
Osmolarity - physical definition- concentration of solute paticles (does not necessarily affect cell volume)Tonicity - Practical definition- strength of solution, has an affect on cell volume
What is the function of the kidneys?
Allows selective excretion of salts and water to maintain equilibruim (cleans blood)
What is the location of blood filtration?
What is the location of solute reabsorption?
The proximal tubule
What is the location of electrolyte reabsorption?
Loop of Henle
The distal tubule regulates ion content. What is it controlled by?
The collecting duct controls the reabsorption of water. What is it controlled by?
Where is urine stored?
What is paracellular movement?
Movement of substances through the clefts between cells
What epithelium are blood vessels lined by?
Endothelium - simple squamous
When is the problem of fluid imbalance common?
Movement of fluid in and out of interstitial spaces
What are the important regions of a capillary bed?
Arterial and venous sides
What are the major forces causing fluid movements?
Hydrostatic pressureOsmotic pressure
What is hydrostatic pressure?
Pressure within vessels. It tends to push fluid out of the venous end.
At the arterial end of the capillary bed how is fluid moved from plasma to tissue?
Hydrostatic force > Osmotic force
At the venous end of the capillary bed, how is fluid moved from tissue to plasma?
Osmotic force > Hydrostatic force
What is the net movement of the arterial end of the capillary bed?
Plasma to tissue
What is the net movement of the venous end of the capillary bed?
Tissue to plasma
Where does excess fluid in tissues drain to?
Where do lymphatic vessels ultimately drain into?
What is the purpose of lymph nodes
Pit stops of lymphatic vesselsLymph is filteredLymphocytes are formed
What is an oedema?
Excessive accumulation of extracellular fluid
What are possible factors of oedema?
Hydrostatic pressure too high on arterial side Hydrostatic pressure too high on venuous side Osmotic pressures insufficient Vessel permeability too high on arterial side Lymphatic drainage inadequate
Anything resulting in greater lymph in tissues
What is elephantitis?
Blockage of lymph nodes Due to filiariasis
What are reticulocytes?
Immature RBCs, no nucleus
What colour do basophils stain?