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Phase I Medicine > Blood & Circulation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood & Circulation Deck (63):
1

What are the fluid compartments within the body?

Intracellular fluidInterstitial fluidBlood plasmaTranscellular compartmentsExternal compartments

2

What are examples of transcellular fluid compartments?

Cerebrospinar fluid (CSF)Synovial fluid

3

What are examples of external compartments?

Gastrointesinal tractBladder

4

What are the consequences of fluid imbalance?

Too much - OedemaToo little - Dizziness, Eventual drop in blood pressure + coma

5

What are the most important fluid compartments?

Intracellular and extracellular

6

What does blood contain

Cells suspended in a protein rich liquid

7

What is blood plasma?

A protein rich liquid

8

What is the difference between plasma and serum?

Serum has liquid left after a clot has formed, plasma does not

9

What is the ratio of cells to plasma in blood?

45% cells; 55% plasma

10

How is the the contents of blood measured?

Haematocrit (Hct) or Packed Cell Volume (PCV)

11

What technique was used to obtain the reference ranges for the ratio of cells to plasma in blood?

Centrifuging

12

What is more dense? plasma or red blood cells?

red blood cells

13

What are erythrocytes?

Red blood cells

14

What is the most abundant type of blood cell?

Erythrocytes / RBCs

15

What is the abundance of erythrocytes?

99.8% of all blood cells

16

What are the main properties of erythrocytes?

No nucleus, no organelles, packed with haemoglobin, biconcave disc morphology

17

What is the most abundance white blood cell?

Neutrophils

18

What are leukocytes?

White blood cells

19

What are polymorphonuclear leukocytes?

Neutrophils

20

What are the properties of neutrophils?

Highly motile, phagocytic, bacteriocidal

21

What is the first defence against infection in the blood?

Neutrophils

22

What is the second most abundance type of white blood cell?

Lymphocytes

23

What is the difference between leukocytes and lymphocyes?

Leukocytes= WBCs (general name)Lymphocytes = Specific WBCs of which there are various types.

24

What is the importance of lymphocytes?

They are involved in the adaptive immune response

25

What is a monocyte?

A phagocytic cell involved in the immune response.When it migrates into tissues it is known as macrophage

26

What is the difference between monocytes and macrophages?

Location : Monocytes are found in the blood. Migration of monocytes into tissue causes them to be known as macrophages.

27

What is a eosinophil?

A secretory cell, important in the defence against parasites

28

What is a basophil?

Very similar to a eosinophil, it is a secretory cell important against parasites.It is also implicated in allergy

29

What is the difference between a basophil and mast cell?

Location: Basophils are in the bloodWhen basophils migrate into tissues, they are known as mast cells

30

What are platelets?

Subcellular fragments involved in blood clotting

31

True or false? There is more potassium inside of cells than outside?

TRUE

32

True or false? There is more calcium outside of the cell than inside?

TRUE

33

True or false? There is more -PO43- inside the cell than outside?

TRUE

34

True or false? There is more protein outside of the cell than inside?

FALSE

35

True or false? There is a higher osmolarity inside the cell than outside?

FALSE - the osmolarities are the same

36

What are the measures of solute particles?

Osmolarity and Osmolaltity

37

What is the difference between osmolarity and tonicity?

Osmolarity - physical definition- concentration of solute paticles (does not necessarily affect cell volume)Tonicity - Practical definition- strength of solution, has an affect on cell volume

38

What is the function of the kidneys?

Allows selective excretion of salts and water to maintain equilibruim (cleans blood)

39

What is the location of blood filtration?

Glomerulus

40

What is the location of solute reabsorption?

The proximal tubule

41

What is the location of electrolyte reabsorption?

Loop of Henle

42

The distal tubule regulates ion content. What is it controlled by?

Mineralcorticoids

43

The collecting duct controls the reabsorption of water. What is it controlled by?

Vasopressin

44

Where is urine stored?

The bladder

45

What is paracellular movement?

Movement of substances through the clefts between cells

46

What epithelium are blood vessels lined by?

Endothelium - simple squamous

47

When is the problem of fluid imbalance common?

Movement of fluid in and out of interstitial spaces

48

What are the important regions of a capillary bed?

Arterial and venous sides

49

What are the major forces causing fluid movements?

Hydrostatic pressureOsmotic pressure

50

What is hydrostatic pressure?

Pressure within vessels. It tends to push fluid out of the venous end.

51

 At the arterial end of the capillary bed how is fluid moved from plasma to tissue?

Hydrostatic force > Osmotic force

52

At the venous end of the capillary bed, how is fluid moved from tissue to plasma?

Osmotic force > Hydrostatic force

53

What is the net movement of the arterial end of the capillary bed?

Plasma to tissue

54

What is the net movement of the venous end of the capillary bed?

Tissue to plasma

55

Where does excess fluid in tissues drain to?

Lymphatic vessels

56

Where do lymphatic vessels ultimately drain into?

Veins

57

What is the purpose of lymph nodes

Pit stops of lymphatic vesselsLymph is filteredLymphocytes are formed

58

What is an oedema?

Excessive accumulation of extracellular fluid

59

What are possible factors of oedema?

Hydrostatic pressure too high on arterial side Hydrostatic pressure too high on venuous side  Osmotic pressures insufficient Vessel permeability too high on arterial side Lymphatic drainage inadequate
Anything resulting in greater lymph in tissues

60

What is elephantitis?

Blockage of lymph nodes Due to filiariasis

61

What are reticulocytes?

Immature RBCs, no nucleus

62

What colour do basophils stain?

Blue/ Purple?

63

What colour do eusinophils stain?

Red/ Orange