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1

Blood is a

Connective tissue

2

Total blood volume

~5-6 L or ~8% total body weight

3

-Delivery of O2 and nutrients to cells
-Transport of wastes and CO2 from cells
-Transport of hormones and other regulatory substances
-Maintenance of homeostasis by acting as buffer and participating in coagulation and thermoregulation
-Protective role via transport of immune cells and immune components

Functions of blood

4

What does blood deliver to cells

O2 and nutrients

5

What does blood transport from cells

Waters and Co2 from cells

6

Acts as buffer and participating in coagulation and thermoregulation

Maintenance of homeostasis

7

defined as cells in an extracellular matrix

Connective tissue

8

Provide the transportation system for blood through the body.

Heart and blood vessels

9

Acts as a double pump for the system

Heart

10

Provide distribution pathways

Blood vessels

11

Main 3 functions of blood

-Distribution
-Regulation
-Protection

12

absorbs and distributes heat around body; brings it to surface of the skin to cool

Bloods role in thermoregulation

13

blood acts as the reservoir fort the body’s

Alkaline reserve of bicarbonate atoms

14

CO2 carried in blood is transported as

Bicarbonate ions (70%)

15

How does blood prevent blood loss

Coagulation

16

What causes blood clots

platelets and plasma proteins

17

What is blood composed of

-Formed elements
-Plasma

18

Formed elements of blood

-Cells
-Cell fragments

19

Where do the formed elements of blood arise from?

Hemtopoietic stem cells

20

Cells in the blood

-Erthryocytes (RBS)
-Leukocytes

21

Are RBC true cells?

NO

22

What are cell fragments

Thrombocytes (plasma)

23

Protein-rich, fluid extracellular matrix

Plasma

24

Volume of packed red blood cells in a sample of blood

Hematocrit

25

How is hematocrit measured?

Centrifuging blood sample and calcutating perfectage of tube volume

26

Percentage of tube volume occupied RBCs as compared to whole blood

How hematocrit is measured

27

What is the relative volume of RBC in hematocrit?

45%

28

What is the relative volume of Plasma in hematocrit?

55%

29

What is the relative volume of buffy coat in hematocrit?

1%

30

What is in buffy coat?

Leukocytes and platelets

31

Normal hematocrite in males

39-50%

32

What is the normal hematocrite in females

35%-45%

33

What are the components of plasma?

-Water
-Plasma proteins
-Other solutes

34

Give percentages of plasma components

Water- >90
Plasma proteins 7
Other solutes 1

35

What is solvent for a variety of colutes in plasma

Water

36

Helps maintain homeostasis (providing optimal pH and osmolarity)

Water

37

-Albumin
-Globulins
-Fibrinogen

Plasma proteins

38

Electrolytes, non-protein nitrogen substances (i.e., waste materials), nutrients, blood gases, regulatory substances

Solutes in plasma

39

What makes up half of the plasma proteins?

Albumin

40

Where are plasma proteins made?

In the liver

41

Exerts concentration gradient; helps maintain osmotic pressure

Albumin

42

Acts as carrier protein, for substances such as hormones, metabolites, and drugs

Albumin

43

antibodies secreted by plasma cells

Immunoglobulins (γ-globulins)

44

produced by liver; help maintain osmotic pressure and serve as carrier proteins

Nonimmune globins (α- and β-globulins)

45

-Soluble
-Via series of cascade reactions, transformed into insoluble protein fibrin which helps form blot clots

Fibrinogen

46

drop of blood placed directly on slide and spread thinly over surface with edge of another slide

Blood smear

47

Produces monolayer of cells

Blood smear

48

Blood smear is air dried and stained with

Wright's stain

49

Mixture of methylene blue (basic), azures (basic), and eosin (acidic)

Wrights stain

50

devoid of typical organelles

Anucleate cells

51

What type of cells are Erythrocytes?

Anucleate cells

52

Bind and deliver O2 (99%) to tissues and bind CO2 (30%) to remove from tissues

RBC

53

What shape are RBC

Biconcave

54

Diameter of RBC

7.8 um

55

What is important of the shape of a RBC

It maximizes surface area - important for gas exchange

56

Where does production of RBC occur?

Red bone marrow

57

Production of RBC

Erythropoiesis

58

Life span of a RBC

120 days

59

Rate of release of RBC

2 million/sec

60

specialized protein involved in binding, transporting, and releasing O2 and CO2

Hemoglobin

61

-Four polypeptide chains of globin (α, β, δ, γ)
-Four iron-containing heme groups

Structure of hemoglobin

62

What does iron bind to in hemoglobin

One O2 molecule

63

Each hemoglobin protein binds to

4 O2 molecules

64

What is the most common type of hemoglobin composed of?

two α and two β chains

65

subclassified into two general groups based upon presence or absence of prominent specific granules within cytoplasm and the shape of their nuclei

Leukocytes

66

Two types of leukocytes

1. Polymorphonuclear granulocytes
2. Mononuclear agranulocytes

67

Contain specific granules and have multilobed nuclei; also possess azurophilic granules

Polymorphonuclear Granulocytes

68

What type of WBC are polymorphonuclear granuloctyes

-Neutrophils
-Eosinophils
-Basophils

69

No specific granules and have rounded nuclei; do contain azurophilic granules

Mononuclear Agranulocytes

70

Types of Mononuclear Agranulocytes

-Lymphocytes
-Monocytes

71

Types of lymphocytes

-B lymphocytes
-T lymphocytes
-Natural Killer (NK) cells

72

Most numerous leukocytes

Neutrophils

73

Cytoplasm of neutrophils

Small faint lavender granues

74

Granule contents of neutrophils

-Lysozyme (specific granules)
-Peroxidases (azurophilic granules)

75

Nucleus of neutrophils

Darkish, several lobes

76

-First responders to infection
-Acute inflammation
-Phagocytose bacteria within tissues; accumulate as pus

Function of neutrophils

77

Comprise 1%-5% of leukocytes

Eosinophils

78

Cytoplasm of eosinophils

Large coarse acidophillic granules

79

Granule content of eosinophils

-Peroxidase
-Histaminase
-Arylsulfatase

80

Nucleus of Eosinophils

Llight, bilobed

81

Contribute to defense of parasitic infections (major role in defense against helminths (worms))

Eosinophils

82

Associated with allergies; release of histaminase & arylsulfatase moderates potentially harmful effects of inflammatory vasoactive mediators

Eosinophils

83

Chronic inflammation

Eosinophils

84

Least abundant leukocyte

Basophils

85

How his the cytoplasm of basophils?

Large coarse basophilic granules

86

Granule content of basophils

Histamine, serotonin, heparin sulfate

87

How is the nucleus of basophils?

Light, bilobed

88

-Involved in regulating immune response to parasites
-Role in allergies via release of vasoactive agents (e.g. histamine)

Basophils function

89

Comprise 26-28% leukocytes

Lymphocytes

90

Cytoplasm of lymphocytes

Narrow rim of blue cytoplasm

91

Nucleus of lymphocytes

Very dark, takes up all of the cell, round, slightly indented

92

Types of lymphocytes

-T lymphocytes
-B lymphocytes
-Natural Killer (NK) cells

93

Where do T lymphocytes mature?

Thymus

94

Adaptive immune cells; cell-mediated immunity

T lymphocytes

95

Adaptive immune cells; humoral immunity

B lymphocytes

96

What are B lymphocytes responsible for?

Production of antibodies

97

Innate immune cells; kill virally infected and malignant cells

Natural killer (NK) cells

98

How is the cytoplasm of monocytes

Gray (foamy) texture

99

How is the nucleus in a monocytes

darkish; large, off-center; oval, kidney, or horseshoe shaped

100

Differentiate into macrophages within body tissues

Monocytes

101

serve as phagocytic cells involved in antigen presentation

Monocytes as macrophages

102

Large cells within bone marrow

Megakaryocytes

103

Thrombocytes are

Platelets

104

Where are thrombocytes derived from?

Megakaryocytes

105

separate from peripheral margins of megakaryocyte forming thrombocytes (platelets)

Small bits of cytoplasm

106

Lifespan of thrombocyte

10 days

107

Small disc shaped structures

Thrombocytes

108

blot clot formation and repair of tears in blood vessel wall

Thrombocytes (platelets)

109

process of blood cell production and maturation

Hematopoiesis

110

to maintain constant level of the different blood cell types within blood

Purpose of hematopoiesis

111

Hematopoiesis of RBC

Erythropoiesis

112

HEmatopoiesis of white blood cells

Leukopoiesis

113

-Granulopoiesis
-Monocytopoiesis
-Lymphopoiesis

Forms of Leukopoiesis

114

Hematopoiesis of platelets

Thrombopoiesis

115

When is hematopoiesis initiated?

Early embryonic development

116

Phases of hematopoiesis

-Yolk- sac phase
-Hepatic phase
-Bone marrow phase

117

Hematopoiesis after birth

Red bone marrow

118

The monophyletic theory states that all blood cells are derived from a common

pluripotential stem cell: hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)

119

All blood cells are derived from a common pluripotential stem cell: hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)

Monophyletic theory

120

Capable not only of differentiating into all the blood cell lineages, but also capable of self-renewal

Pluripotential stem cell: hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)

121

What does HSC break into

HSC & Progenitor cells

122

In the bone marrow, descendents of the HSC can differentiate into 2 major colonies of mulitpotential progenitor cells:

1. Common Myeloid Progenitor (CMP)
2. Common Lymphoid Progenitor (CLP)

123

-Start to get an idea or suggestion of what they will become

Blast cells

124

Cells that have a lot of mitosis

Blast cells

125

Only undergo some mitosis

Stem and progenitor cells

126

Only undergo mitosis to maintain their populations

Stem and progenitor cells

127

Under great mitosis producing only cells on their way to differentiation,

Blast cells

128

Undergo asymmetric mitosis

Stem and progenitor cells

129

Common myeloid progenitor differentiate into lineage-restricted progenitors

-Megakaryocyte/Erythrocyte
-Granulocyte/Monocyte

130

Previously called “colony-forming units-granulocyte, erythrocyte, monocyte, megakaryocyte” (CFU-GEMM)

Common myeloid progenitor cells

131

Previously called “colony-forming units-lymphoid”

Common lymphoid progenitor cells

132

Gives rise to T cells, B cells, and Natural Killer (NK) cells

Common lymphoid progenitor cells

133

Progenitor cells develop into

Precursor cells or blasts

134

Morphological characteristics begin to differentiate

Blast cells

135

Large amount of mitosis – but only produce cells on the way to differentiation

Blast cells

136

The higher the potentiality, the lower the

Mitotic rate

137

The lower the potentiality the higher the

Mitotic rate

138

Process of blood cell production and maturation

Hematopoiesis

139

to maintain constant level of the different blood cell types within blood:

Purpose of hematopoiesis

140

-Large cell (12-20μm); large, spherical nucleus with 1 to 2 nucleoli
-Cytoplasm shows mild basophilia (free ribosomes)

Proerythroblast

141

Development of erythrocytes within bone marrow

Erythropoiesis

142

dark-staining, condensed; inactive

Heterochromatin

143

HSC->CMP->MEP->ErP:

Note

144

-Nucleus 10-16μm in diameter; progressively more heterochromatic
-Cytoplasm strongly basophilic due to large numbers free ribosomes (polyribosomes) that synthesize hemoglobin

Basophilic Erythroblast

145

Free ribosomes that synthesize hemoglobin

Polyribosomes

146

-Cytoplasm displays both acidophilia (hemoglobin) and basophilia (ribosomes),gives overall gray/lilac color
-Nucleus becoming smaller; coarse heterochromatin granules - checkerboard pattern

Polychromatophilic erythroblast

147

-Small, compact, densely stained nucleus
-Eosinophilic cytoplasm (large amount of hemoglobin)
-No longer capable of cell division

Orthochromatic erythroblast (normoblast)

148

No longer capable of cell division

Orthochromatic erythroblast (normoblast)

149

-No nucleus
-Some polyribosomes still present, impart slight basophilia to eosinophilic cells
-Can be found within bloodstream (1-2% of total RBC count)

Polychromatophilic erythrocyte (reticulocyte)

150

-Granulopoiesis
-Monocytopoiesis
-Lymphopoiesis

Leukopoiesis

151

-Eosinophils
-Basophils
-Neutrophils

Granulopoiesis

152

-Monocytes

Monocytopoiesis

153

-B cells
-T cells
-NK cells

Lymphopoiesis

154

Can give us progenitor cells for each line; monocytes and all the granulocytes

GMP

155

Originate from common myeloid progenitor which differentiates into granulocyte/monocyte progenitors

Granulocytes and Monocytes

156

neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils undergo similar morphologic maturation process:

Granulopoiesis

157

Follow granulopoiesis

myeloblast -> promyelocyte -> myelocyte -> metamyelocyte
-> (*band cell) -> mature cell

158

HSC -> CLP ---> ---> Lymphocytes

Lymphocytes

159

Derived from megakaryocytes via thrombopoiesis:

Thrombocytes (platelets)

160

Follow the formation of thrombocytes

HSC -> CMP -> MEP -> MKP -> Megakaryoblast -> Megakaryocyte -> Platelets

161

Megakaryoblast under goes successive _____ to become a platelet-producing megakaryocyte

Endomitoses

162

50 to 70μm in diameter; complex, multilobed nucleus and scattered azurophilic granules; polyploid cells (64N)

Megakaryocyte

163

Large cell (30μm diameter); nonlobed nucleus

Megakaryoblast

164

Where are megakaryocytes located?

Near sinusoids within bone marrow

165

Megakaryocytes send cytoplasmic extensions that break off as platelets

Platelets

166

Small bits of cytoplasm separated from peripheral regions of megakaryocytes by extensive platelet demarcation channels, lined by

Invaginations of plasma membrane

167

Cytoplasmic fragments partitioned, forming

Individual platelets

168

Represents areas where segmentation of platelets is occurring

"foamy" peripheral cytoplasm

169

Penetrate the sinusoidal endothelium; where platelets will pinch off

Proplatelets

170

Debate either invaginations of plasma membrane considered “fracture lines” for the release of platelets, but now represents a membrane reservoir that facilitates proplatelet elongation.

Platelet Demarcation Membranes

171

Where is bone marrow located?

Within medullary cavity and spaces of spongy bone

172

What does bone marrow consist of?

Sinusoids (sinusoidal capillaries and hematopoietic cords

173

Developing blood cells, megakaryocytes, macrophages, mast cells, adipocytes

Hematopoietic cords

174

Where do hematopoietic cells develop?

In clusters/nests located near sinusoids

175

Send sheetlike extensions into hematopoietic cords --> provide support for developing blood cells; stimulate differentiation of progenitor cells

Adventitial cells (reticular cells)

176

ratio of hematopoietic cells to adipocytes

Bone marrow cellularity

177

Number of hematopoietic cells _______ with age

Decreases

178

Bone marrow cellularity:

100 – age ± 10%