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Anatomy Unit 3- Sav > Upper Limb Arm & Forearm > Flashcards

Flashcards in Upper Limb Arm & Forearm Deck (137)
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1

Is associated with the lateral aspect of the lower portion of the neck and with the thoracic wall

Upper limb

2

What suspends the upper limbs from the trunk

Muscles & Sternoclavicular joint

3

What is the upper limb divided into?

Shoulder, arm, forearm and hand

4

Where is the scapula attached at

Acromioclavicular joint

5

Allows the arm to move around three axes with a wide ROM.

Glenohumeral joint

6

flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial rotation (internal rotation), lateral rotation (external rotation) and circumduction

Movement of the glenohumeral joint

7

major movements a the elbow = flexion & extension of the forearm

Elbow joint

8

flipping the lateral bone over the medial bone

Pronation

9

hand can be abducted, adducted, flexed, extended, circumducted.

Wrist joint

10

These movements combined with those of the shoulder, arm and forearm enable the hand to be placed in a very wide range of positions relative to the body.

Wrist joint

11

irregularly shaped pyramidal area formed by muscles and bones of the shoulder and the lateral surface of the thoracic wall.

Axilla

12

triangularly shaped depression formed by muscles anterior to the elbow joint the major artery: the brachial artery, passing from the arm to the forearm passes through the fossa as does the median n.

Cubital fossa

13

What passes through the cubital fossa

Brachial artery and median nerve

14

Gateway to the palm of the hand

Carpal tunnel

15

Its posterior, lateral, and medial walls form an arch, which is made up of small carpal bones in the proximal region of the hand.

Carpal tunnel

16

Where are cutaneous nerves located?

Superficial fascia

17

-not visible thru skin
-branches of brachial plexus deep to deep fascia

Cutaneous nerves

18

Where are superficial veins located?

Superficial fascia

19

-generally visible thru skin
-tributaries to deep vv. beneath deep fascia

Superficial veins

20

What innervated the upper limbs?

Brachial plexus

21

Formed by the anterior rami of the cervical spinal nn C5-C8 & T1

Brachial plexus

22

Innervated the arm, forearm and hand

Brachial plexus

23

Spinal chord levels associated with brachial plexus

C5-C8 & T1

24

Innervates the superior shoulder and anterior superior shoulder

C3-C4

25

Used for testing sensation based on the innervation pattern

Dermatomes of UL

26

How are the dermatomes of the upper limb

Fairly specific and reliable /reproducible

27

Upper later arm

C5

28

Palmar pad of thumb

C6

29

Pad of index

C7

30

Pad of little finger

C8

31

Skin of medial elbow

T1

32

Superficiacl veins of the UL

-Cephalic
-Basilic
-Median cubital
-Dorsal venous arch

33

Path of venous return

Distal to proximal

34

What does the cephalic vein drain?

Posterior/lateral aspect of UL

35

Runs in deltopectoral groove & pierces deep fascia

Cephalic vein

36

The cephalic vein is tributary to

Axillary vein

37

What does the basilic vein drain

Anterior/medial aspect of UL

38

What does the basilic vein pierce?

Fascia of arm

39

The basilic vein is tributary to

Axillary vein

40

What does the median cubital vein connect?

Cephalic & Basilic

41

Where is the median cubital vein located?

In the cubital fossa

42

“I.V. vein” for venipuncture
--intravenous fluid injection
--drawing blood

Median cubital vein

43

What does the dorsal venous arch of the hand drain

Superficial dorsal vein of hand

44

Where is the dorsal venous arch of hand located?

It arches across dorsal surface of hand

45

The dorsal venous arch of hand is tributary to

Cephalic and basilic vv.

46

The dorsal venous arch of the hand is sometimes used for

Venipuncture

47

Deep fascia of the arm

Brachial fascia

48

Connected to humerus by 2 fascial septa

Deep fascia of the arm

49

Divides arm into anterior & posterior compartments

Deep fascia of the arm

50

mm., nn., & aa., compartmentalized via

deep fascia

51

Clinically relevant to compartmental syndromes

Deep fascia of the arm

52

_____ pressure in compartment can affect circulation

Increased

53

Directly related to the neck

UL

54

formed by the lateral margin of Rib 1, posterior surface of the clavicle and the superior margin of the scapula & the medial surface of the coracoid process of the scapula.

Axillary inlet

55

-Rib 1
-Clavical
-Scapula
-Coracoid process

Axillary inlet

56

The major artery and vein of the UL pass between the thorax and the UL by passing ...

Over Rib 1 and thru the axillary inlet

57

On either side of the humerus
-medial & lateral

Intermuscular septa

58

What is contained in the anterior compartment of the arm

-Biceps brachii
-Coracobrachialis
-Brachialis mm

59

Contains brachial vessels & 5 brachial plexus nn.

Anterior compartment of arm

60

3 Motor nerves and 2 cutaneous nerves

Brachial plexus

61

3 motor nerves in brachial plexus

-musculocutaneous
-median
-ulnar nn.

62

2 cutaneous nerves in brachial plexus

-Medial brachial
-Medial antibrachial cutaneous

63

Supply skin of medial arm & forearm

Cutaneous nerves in the brachial plexus

64

Flexor compartment

Anterior compartment of arm

65

Has 2 heads

Biceps brachii

66

‘coracoid process to arm’

Coracobrachialis m

67

'Arm'

Brachialis m

68

flexes & supinates forearm (slight arm flexion)

Biceps brachii muscle

69

musculocutaneous n. & brachial vessels

Biceps brachii muscle

70

an accessory flexor of the arm at the glenohumeral joint.

Biceps brachii

71

Action of Coracobrachialis m.

Flexes arm

72

What innervates the coracobrachialis m

Musculocutaneous n. & brachial vessels

73

Action of brachialis m.

Flexes forearm

74

What innervates the brachialis

radial & musculocutaneous nn. & brachial vessels

75

Deep to the biceps brachii m.

Brachialis

76

Flexes the arm and the elbow joint – powerful.

Brachialis m

77

Extensors the elbow/forearm

Posterior compartment of arm

78

Where are the radial nerve and deep brachial artery located?

Posterior compartment of the arm

79

Initially located within triangular interval

Radial n and deep brachial a

80

Contains triceps brachii muscle

Posterior compartment of the arm

81

the lateral portion of the brachialis m. that would be receiving the contribution from

Radial nerve

82

Extensor compartment

Posterior compartment of Arm

83

Action of triceps brachii

Extends forearm

84

What innervates triceps brachii

radial n. & deep brachial vessels

85

Where are the origins of the triceps brachii

Deep to the deltoid muscle

86

How many heads does triceps brachii have

3

87

Profunda brachii =

Deep brachial artery

88

The joint of the humerus and the ulna and radius.

Elbow

89

the anterior depression of the elbow joint

Cubital fossa

90

What happens at the cubital fossa

Major neurovasculature passes from the arm to the forearm

91

Where does the ulna nerve pass?

posterior to the medial epicondyle of the humerus.

92

Depressed area anterior to elbow

Cubital fossa

93

What does the cubital fossa contain?

-Biceps brachii tendon
-Brachial a
-Median n.

94

Forearm flexors to the

Medial of the cubital fossa

95

Forearm extensors to the

Lateral of the cubital fossa

96

part of the UL between the elbow and the wrist joints.

Forearm

97

complex joint involving 3 separate articulation.

Elbow joint

98

articular surface of the head of the ulna, with the ulnar notch on the end of the radius and with a fibrous articular disc which separates the radio-ulnar joint from the wrist joint.

Distal Radio-ulnar joint

99

thin fibrous sheet that connects the medial and lateral borders of the radius and ulna respectively

Interosseous membrane

100

____ with the sheet pass predominantly inferiorly from the radius to the ulna.

Collagen fibers

101

Just inferior to the radial tuberosity and a small circular aperture in its distal 3rd.

Superior free margin

102

Connects the radius and ulna without restricting its movements: supination and pronation.

Interosseous membrane

103

Anatomincal position of the hand

Supination

104

Occur entirely in the forearm and involve rotation of the radius at the elbow and movement of the distal end of the radius over the ulna

Pronation and supination

105

Where is the cubital fossa located

Anterior to the elbow joint

106

Major structure that doesn't pass through the cubital fossa

Ulnar nerve

107

Distally structures pass between the forearm and the hand through or anterior to the carpel tunnel except

Radial artery

108

Where does the radial artery pass

Dorsally around the rest and enters the hand posteriorly

109

3 layers of the anterior compartment of forerarm

-Superficial (4)
-Intermediate (1)
-Deep (3)

110

wrist movements, flexion of digits & thumb, and pronation

Functions of the Anterior Compartment of Forearm

111

The anterior forearm has no more contributions from

C5

112

What does contribute to the anterior forearm

C6-C8 and T1

113

Layers of the posterior compartment of the forearm

-Superficial (7)
-Deep (5)

114

movement of the wrist
extension of the fingers and thumb. supination

Functions of the posterior compartment of the forearm

115

Radial nerve

C5-C8

116

There are no contribution of ____ in the posterior forearm

T1

117

Where does the C5 component of the radial n come in

Where the brachioradialis m extends superiorly across the elbow joint to the lateral arm

118

Pierces coracobrachialis m. to supply it

Musculocuntaneous nerve

119

What does the musculocuntaneous nerve supple

All of biceps brachii and medial part of brachialis m, coracobrachialis m

120

-Emerges between these mm. as lateral antebrachial cutaneous m.
-Supplies skin of lateral forearm

Musculocuntaneous nerve

121

-Runs down medial aspect of arm lateral to brachial a.
-Crosses over to medial side of it & enters cubital fossa
-Runs between superficial & deep anterior forearm mm

Median N

122

What does the median nerve supply

Most muscles of anterior forearm

123

Continues under carpal tunnel to supply lateral hand – palmar br. (cutaneous)

Median nerve

124

originates from the median n. in the distal forearm immediately proximal to the flexor retinaculum, passes superficially to innervate the skin over the base and central palm.

Small palmer branch

125

Spared in carpal tunnel syndrome because it passes into the hand superficial to the flexor retinaculum of the wrist.

Palmar branch

126

-Travels posteriorly down medial aspect of arm
-Runs in cubital tunnel between medial epicondyle & olecranon
--very superficial at this point (‘funny bone’)
-Dives deep into medial forearm (with ulnar a.) to supply it

Ulnar Nerve

127

Continues over carpal tunnel to supply medial hand & deepest mm. of hand

Ulnar nerve

128

-Runs with deep brachial a. in radial groove of humerus
--between lateral & medial heads of triceps m.
-Continues between brachialis & brachioradialis mm.

Radial Nerve

129

What does the radial nerve supply

all of triceps brachii & lateral part of brachialis m.

130

Divides into superficial & deep branches

Radial Nerve

131

Continues to supply skin on the back of the hand

Superficial branch of radial nerve

132

Dives to supply muscles of posterior forearm

Deep branch of radial nerve

133

Direct continuation of Axillary A.

Brachial A.

134

What does the Brachial a. split into in the cubital fossa?

Radial a. and Ulnar a.

135

Runs from inferior border of teres major m. to its bifurcation

Brachial A.

136

-Sends off deep brachial a. & several muscular branches
-Sends off superior & inferior ulnar collateral aa.

Brachial Artery

137

Supplies entire UL

Brachial Artery