Integumentary System Histology Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Unit 3- Sav > Integumentary System Histology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Integumentary System Histology Deck (146)
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1

What are the components of skin?

Skin
Epidermal Derivatives

2

What are Epidermal Derivatives?

-Hair follicles & hair
-Sweat (sudoriferous) glands
-Sebaceous (oil) glands
-Nails

3

Functions of Integumentary system

Protective•Immunologic•Homeostasis •Sensory•Endocrine•Exocrine

4

Two principle layers of skin

Epidermis & Dermis

5

Superficial layer of skin

Epidermis

6

What type of epithelium is the epidermis?

Keratinized stratified squamous

7

Where is the epidermis derived from?

Ectoderm

8

Is the epidermis vascular?

No, avascular

9

Deep layer of the skin

Dermis

10

What is the dermis made of?

Connective tissue

11

What is the dermis derived from?

Mesoderm

12

Subcutaneous layer deep to the skin

Hypodermis

13

What is the hypodermis composed of?

Adipose tissue, vascularized

14

Where is thick skin found?

Palms of hands and soles of feet

15

Found in areas subject to the most abrasion

Thick skin

16

Hairless skin

Thick skin

17

Thickest epidermal layer

Thick skin

18

Hair follicles present in

Thin skin

19

-Found everywhere except palms of hands and soles of feet
-Much thinner epidermis than thick skin

Thin skin

20

How many layers in thin skin?

4 layers

21

How many layers in thick skin?

5 layers

22

Name the layers of epidermis from Deep to superficial

1. Stratum Basale
2. Stratum Spinosum
3. Stratum Granulosum
4. Stratum Lucidum
5. Stratum Corneum

23

-Produce keratins
-Participate in formation of water barrier

Keratinocytes (85%)

24

Pigment producing cells

Melanocytes (5%)

25

Antigen presenting cells of the immune system

Langerhans' cells (2%-5%)

26

Mechanoreceptor cells associated with sensory nerve endings

Merkel's cells (6%-10%)

27

Principal cell type of epidermis

Keratinocytes

28

Major structural proteins of epidermis

Keratins

29

What do keratins form?

Keratin filaments

30

Keratin filaments are classified as

Intermediate filaments or tonofilaments

31

What do keratinocytes help form

Epidermal water barrier

32

What is the water barrier formed via?

Production of lamellar bodies

33

-Tubular/ovoid shaped membrane bound organelles
-Lipid-containig structures

Epidermal water barrier

34

Single layer of basophilic cells

Stratum Basale

35

How are cells in the Stratum basale?

Small and cuboidal/ low columnar

36

Mitotically active layer; contains stem cells that give rise to keratinocytes

Stratum Basale

37

Where does the production of intermediate (keratin) filament begin?

Stratum Basale

38

Keratinocytes exhibit numerous cytoplasmic processes (“spines”)

Stratum Spinosum

39

In Stratum Spinosum Cell processes attached to those of adjacent cells via

Desmosomes

40

What occurs to stratum spinosum during histological prep?

Cells shrink, leaving expanded intercellular spaces between the spines

41

What contributes to the spiny/ prickly appearance in Stratum spinosum?

Cells shrinking during histological prep

42

What are intermediate filaments grouped into bundles called

tonofibrils

43

What is another word for intermediate filaments?

tonofilaments

44

What production begins in the stratum spinosum?

Production of keratohyalin granules and lamellar bodies

45

What do keratinocytes contain?

Keratohyalin granules

46

Intensely basophilic

Stratum Granulosum

47

Conversion of granular cells into cornified cells

Keratinization

48

Released within the stratum granulosum

Lamellar bodies

49

-Basophilic
-Tonofibrils
-Keratinization
-Lamellar bodies

Stratum Granulosum

50

Layer only found in thick skin

Stratum Lucidum

51

Thin translucent layer of eosinophilic cells

Stratum lucidum

52

Nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles becomes disrupted and disappear

Stratum Lucidum

53

Cells lose nuclei and cytoplasmic organelles

Stratum Corneum

54

Filled almost entirely (85%) with keratin

Stratum Corneum

55

Cells of this layer sloughed off at the surface

Statum Corneum

56

Cells are dead; represented only by flat membranous sacs filled with keratin: Glycolipids in extracellular space

Stratum Corneum

57

Cells are flattened; organelles deteriorating; cytoplasm full of lamellated granules (release lipids) and keratohyaline granules

Stratum Granulosum

58

Cells contain thick bundles of intermediate filaments made of pre-keratin

Stratum Spinosum

59

Cells are actively mitotic stem cells
-Some newly formed cells becomes part of the more superficial layers

Stratum Basale

60

Produce & secrete the pigment melanin

Melanocytes

61

Synthesized and stored in melanosomes

Melanin

62

What type of cells are melanocytes?

Dendritic cells

63

Rounded cell bodies in stratum basale

Melanocytes

64

Where are long processes of melanocytes extended upward and between keratinocytes in

Stratum spinosum

65

Where are melanin-containing melanosomes transferred into?

Adjacent keratinocytes

66

Why does melanin accumulate over nuclei?

To protect DNA from UV radiation

67

Possess elongated nuclei surrounded by clear cytoplasm

Melanocytes

68

Where are antigen presenting cells typically found within?

Stratum Spinosum

69

What are Langerhan's cells derived from?

Bone marrow

70

Encounter and process antigens entering through skin

Langerhan's cells

71

What do langerhan's cells present processed antigen to within nearby lymph node?

T lymphocytes

72

Mechanoreceptor cells associated with sensory nerve endings

Merkel's cells

73

Where are merkel's cells located within?

Statum basale

74

What does Merkel's cells contain?

Neurosecretory granules

75

Base of Merkel’s cells associate with expanded, plate-like terminal of afferent nerve fibers

Merkel's Corpuscle

76

What are the 3 major types of skin cancer

-Basal cell carcinoma
-Squamous cell carcinoma
-Malignant melanoma

77

•Most common
•Resembles cells of stratum basale
•Slow-growing tumor

Basal cell Carcinoma

78

•Second most common
•Characterized by highly atypical cells at all levels of epidermis

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

79

•Most serious form
•Originates from melanocytes
•Presents as irregularly pigmented, multicolor lesion

Malignant Melanoma

80

2 layers of the dermis

-Papillary Layer
-Reticular layer

81

What tissue is in the papillary layer?

Loose (areolar) Connective tissue

82

Finger-like connective tissue protrusions

Dermal papillae

83

Where do dermal papillae project into epidermis?

Epidermal-dermal junction

84

What tissue is the reticular layer made of?

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

85

Which layer of the dermis is the thickest?

Reticular layer

86

Which layer of the dermis has the most cells?

Papillary layer

87

Large Ovoid structures

Pacinian Corposucles

88

Where are Pacinian corpuscles found?

Dermis and Hypodermis

89

Where are Pacinian corpuscles found?

Dermis and hypodermis

90

Myelinated nerve ending surrounded by a capsule?

Pacinian Corpuscle

91

What does the capsule of the Pacinian corpuscle consist of?

Concentric lamellae

92

Series of tightly packed, flattened Schwann cell lamellae surrounding unmyelinated axon

Inner core of Pacinian Corpuscles

93

What do Pacinian Corpuscles do?

Detect pressure and vibration

94

Tapered, cylindrical structures

Meissner's Corpuscles

95

Where are Messner's Corpuscles located?

Within dermal papillae of hairless skin

96

What forms lamellae in Meissner's Corpuscles

Flattened Schwann cells

97

What follows spiral paths in Meissner's Corpuscles?

Unmyelinated nerve endings

98

What do Meissner's Corpuscles do?

Detect light touch

99

Derived from down-growths of epidermal epithelium during development?

Epidermal Skin Appendages

100

-Hair follicles and hair
-Eccrine Sweat glands
-Apocrine Sweat glands
-Secaceous glands

Epidermal Skin Appendages

101

Eccrine sweat glands

Sudoriferous

102

Apocrine sweat glands

Sudoriferous

103

Sebaceous glands

Oil

104

Elongated filamentous, keratinized structures that project from hair follicles

Hair

105

Responsible for the production and growth of a hair

Hair Follicle

106

Where are hair follicles found?

Along the surface of most of the entire body, except thick skin

107

Smooth muscle extending from connective tissue sheath surrounding hair follicle to papillary layer of dermis

Arrector Pili Muscle

108

Causes hair to "stand on end" resulting in goosebumps"

Arrector Pili Muscle

109

-Role in insulation
-Sympathetic innervation

Arrector pili muscle

110

•Widely distributed
•Simple coiled tubular gland
•Merocrine secretion •Thermoregulatory
•Excretes wastes and excess salts

Eccrine Sweat Gland

111

-Double layer of epithelial cells
-Secretory cells are larger and appear lighter than the cells of the duct
-Located deep in dermis or upper part of hypodermis

Secretory portion of Eccrine Sweat Glands

112

-Narrower outside diameter and lumen than secretory portion
-Double layer of small cuboidal cells (i.e., stratified cuboidal epithelium)
-Duct cells are smaller and appear darker than the cells of the secretory portion
-Leads to epidermal surface

Duct portion of Eccrine Sweat Glands

113

Where are Apocine sweat glands found?

Axillary and perineal regions of the body

114

-Viscous, protein rich sweat
-Product secreted into hair follicles

Apocrine Sweat Glands

115

What type of secretion is Apocine Sweat glands

Merocrine secretion

116

Gland shape in apocrine sweat glands

Coiled tubular glands with very wide lumens

117

When do apocrine sweat glands become functional?

Puberty

118

What leads to body odor?

The bacterial breakdown of sweat

119

Where are the secretory portion of the eccrine sweat glands found?

In the deep dermin or upper part of the hypodermis

120

What is the difference of secretory cells in the Eccrine sweat glands compared to the ducts

Secretory cells are larger and appear lighter

121

Epithelium in the duct portion of Eccrine Sweat glands?

Stratified cuboidal

122

Where does the duct portion of the Eccrine sweat glands lead to?

Epidermal surface

123

Where is the secretory portion of the apocrine sweat glands found?

Upper part of the hypodermis or deep in dermis

124

What epithelium is in the secretory portion of the Apocrine sweat glands?

Simple cuboidal

125

What gland has the widest lumen?

Secretory portion of the Apocrine sweat gland

126

What epithelium is in the apocrine duct portion

Stratified cuboidal epithelium (2-3 layers)

127

Where does the duct portion of the apocrine sweat gland empty?

Follicle canal, not surface

128

Throughout skin of most regions of the body, especially in skin of forehead, palms and soles

Eccrine Sweat Glands

129

Skin of Axilla, groin, areolas, bearded regions of the face and labia minora

Appocrine Sweat Glands

130

Secretory portion location of Eccrine

Mostly in deep dermis

131

Secretory portion of Apocrine

Mostly in subcutaneous layer

132

Termination of excretory duct in Eccrine

Surface of epidermis

133

Termination of excretory duct in Apocrine

Hair follicle

134

Secretion: Less viscous, consists of water, ions, urea, uric acid, ammonia, amino acids, glucose and lactic acid

Eccrine sweat glands

135

Secretion: More viscous, consists of all the same components of eccrine plus lipids and proteins

Apocrine sweat glands

136

Regulation of body temp and waste removal

Eccrine Sweat glands

137

Stimulated during emotional stress and sexual excitement

Apocrine Sweat glands

138

When is the onset of function of Eccrine Sweat glands?

Soon after birth

139

When is the onset of function of Apocrine sweat glands?

Puberty

140

Where are Sebaeous glands found?

Everywhere except thick skin

141

Type of glands of Sebaceous glands?

Branch acinar

142

Lipid-containing substance produced and secreted by gland

Sebum

143

Where does sebaceous gland secrete?

Into hair follicle

144

What type of secretion does Sebaceous glands do?

Holocrine

145

Gland that is involved in acne development

Sebaceous Glands

146

Plates of keratinized cells that rest on nail beds

Nails