Flashcards in Blood Cells - Functions Of Leucocytes Deck (19):
Where are blood cells produced?
In haematopoietic tissues such as bone marrow
What percentage of the world have iron deficiency anaemia?
What are newly formed erythrocytes called?
Why can reticulocytes be stained by specific dyes, and what are these dyes called?
They can be stained because they contain small amounts of RNA.
Describe the clinical significance of the reticulocyte count?
The lifespan of a reticulocyte is short and therefore it gives information on the activity of the bone marrow.
Increased reticulocyte count indicates that erythrocytes production has increased.
Name different types of leucocytes.
What are the features of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae?
+ It's one cause of pneumonia
+ 5% mortality rate
+ In 20% patients, the bacterium spreads to the blood
+ If it spreads then mortality is 20%
How do you restrict infection to the lungs?
+ Induce chemotaxis of neutrophils - confines pathogen to local site
What is released in order to prevent clotting?
What is released during an allergic reaction?
What is the average life span of a red blood cell?
What is the role of mast cells and basophils in the immune system?
Bind onto antibodies in bloodstream via Fc receptors on their surface - IgE is the antibody involved in allergic responses.
What 3 active agents are typically released in basophil and mast cells?
+ ECF-A: an eosinophil chemotactic factor for anaphylaxis
+ SRS-A: a slow reactive substance of anaphylaxis
What are features of monocytes?
+ Monocytes/macrophages are produced in the bone marrow
+ In the bloodstream they are called monocytes
+ Migrate into the blood then local tissue, where they become fixed tissue phagocytes
+ Highly phagocytic
What are the two different types of Monocytes?
+ M1 macrophage: involved in disruptive processes. Pro-inflammatory
+ M2 macrophage: pro-resolution
Describe features of a lymphocyte.
+ Small when circulating in the bloodstream;resting stage
+ Immune response initiated; gets much bigger; transforms to a lymphoblast and proliferates
What are the two main types of lymphocytes?
+ B-cell: produces plasma cells (humoral response). Antibody producing cells.
+ T-cells: cytotoxic killer cells (cell-mediated response). Can kill other cells if infected with a virus. Involved in graft rejection.
What is the role of a lymphocyte?
To eliminate the antigen, either by releasing antibodies (B cells), cytotoxic granules (T cells) or by signaling to other cells of the immune system (helper T cells)