Structure of the Airway Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Structure of the Airway Deck (44):
1

What is the purpose of respiration?

+ Provide oxygen to the body through inhalation
+ Remove carbon dioxide through exhalation

2

How is inhalation/inspiration achieved?

By increasing the size of the thorax

3

How is increasing the size of the thorax achieved?

+ Contraction (and lowering) of the diaphragm and raising the ribs

+ Creating a negative intra-thoracic pressure that sucks air through the conductive passages and down into the lungs

4

What are the conductive passages of the respiratory system?

+ Nasal cavity
+ Nasopharynx
+ Larynx
+ Trachea
+ Bronchi

5

What must happen to the air that is inhaled/inspired?

It must be warmed, filtered and humidified (vascular mucosa, cilia, mucus)

6

How is exhalation achieved?

By decreasing the size of the thorax, a generally passive process

7

The nose is an external structure that anteriorly encloses which cavities?

Nasal cavities:
- the start of the respiratory tract
- held open by bone and cartilage

8

Where are the nasal cavities located?

+ Above the oral cavity
+ Between the two orbits
+ Posterior to the nose
+ Anterior to the nasopharynx

9

What are the nasal cavities lined with?

A highly vascularised mucosal membrane lined with respiratory epithelium (pseudostratified, cilited, columnar, interspersed with goblet cells for mucous secretion)

10

What is the nasal septum?

A midline structure that separates the left and right nasal cavities

11

What is the composition of the nasal septum?

+ Anteriorly, made of septal cartilage
+ Posteriorly, made of bone

12

What happens if the septum deviates from the midline?

Sinus drainage may be compromised

13

What are the boundaries of the nasal cavities?

+ Bone (ethmoid, frontonasal, sphenoid; roof)
+ Nasal septum (medial)
+ Hard and soft palates (floor)
+ Nasal conchae (lateral)

14

What are the physical features that form the nasal cavity?

+ Frontal sinus
+ Maxillary sinus
+ Hard palate
+ Nasal septum
+ Middle concha
+ Middle meatus
+ Inferior concha
+ Inferior meatus

15

What is another name for conchae?

Turbinates

16

Where are conchae situated?

They project from the lateral wall and overhang the meati, into which the sinuses open

17

Where are the orbits in relation to the nasal cavity?

Immediately lateral

18

What is different about the opening of the maxillary sinus and why might that cause problems?

+ Opening is high in its medial wall

+ Clearance of mucus is dependent upon ciliary action which may be compromised due to infection

+ This can lead to possible sinusitis, as can a deviated septum

19

What is the role of sinuses?

To assist in warming incoming air

20

What is the role of the nasolacrimal duct?

Enters the nasal cavity to drain tears from the conjunctiva of the eye

21

What are the sinuses of the face?

+ Frontal
+ Ethmoid
+ Sphenoidal
+ Maxillary

22

What is another term for nosebleeds?

Epistaxis

23

Between which branches do the vessels of the highly vascularised nasal mucosal membrane anastamose?

+ External carotids
+ Internal carotids

24

Where are the olfactory and the olfactory nerves located?

In the roof and upper parts of the lateral wall

25

What is the pharynx?

+ A tube of fibrous and muscular tissue that can be divided into 3 parts.

It lies behind:

+ The nasal cavity (nasopharynx)
+ The oral cavity (oropharynx)
+ The larynx (laryngopharynx)

26

What are functions/features of the nasopharynx?

+ Transports air
+ Divided from oropharynx by soft palate

27

What are functions/features of the oropharynx?

+ Transports air, fluid, and food (but these must be separated so air passes into the larynx while food and fluid continue into the laryngopharynx

+ Superior to the epiglottia

28

What are functions/ features of the laryngopharynx?

+ To transport food and fluid

29

What is the larynx?

+ A membranous tube suspended between cartilages, the positions of which are controlled by muscles

30

What does altering the laryngeal diameters allow?

+ The passage of air only
+ The control of airflow for speech and raising intra-abdominal pressure

31

What are the physical features of the larynx?

+ Epiglottic (elastic)
+ Thyroid
+ Arytenoid
+ Cricoid

32

What is the clinical significance of the cricothyroid membrane?

It is the site of emergency access to the airway

33

Where is the ary-epiglottic fold?

Upper edge of the quadrangular membrane

34

Where is the vestibular fold?

Lower edge of the quadrangular membrane

35

Where is the vocal fold?

Upper edge of the cricovocal/cricothyroid membrane

36

What are the ary-epiglottic folds formed from?

Laringeal inlet, which is the protective sphincter

37

How does the laryngeal inlet close?

+ By elevation of the larynx which is lifted up and forwards during swallowing

+ Muscles within the ary-epiglottic folds aid both closure and widening of the laryngeal inlet

38

What are the folds and saccule/ventricles of the larynx?

+ Vestibular fold
+ Saccule
+ Laryngeal ventricle
+ Vocal ligaments

39

What do the vocal folds control?

Laryngeal diameter for:
- speech
- coughing
- sneezing
- raising intra-abdominal pressure

Vital in micronutrition, defecation and lifting heavy objects.

40

What are the main actions of laryngeal muscles?

1. Close/open the laryngeal inlet (ary-epiglottic folds)

2. Close/open rima glottidis (arytenoid gliding and rotation)

3. Shorten/lengthen the vocal folds ("rocking" at cricothyroid joints)

41

What is the only muscle that can open the rima glottidid?

Posterior crico-arytenoid

42

What is the role of the superior laryngeal nerve?

It supplies only 1 muscle and sensation ABOVE vocal cords

43

What is the role of the recurrent laryngeal nerve?

It supplies all other muscles, and sensation of vocal cords and below

44

Where is the trachea in relation to its surroundings?

+ In front of oesophagus
+ Medial to carotid arteries and internal jugular veins
+ Inferior to larynx
+ Thyroid gland surrounds the upper portion