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Flashcards in Erythrocytes Deck (18):
1

What do erythrocyte (red blood cell) indices/levels indicate?

+ What level of haemoglobin the patient has > their ability to to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide

2

What do leucocyte indices/levels indicate?

+ whether the patient is slightly immunosuppressed and the state of their defence mechanisms

3

What do platelet indices/levels indicate?

+ The ability of the patient to respond to areas where bleeding is occurring

4

What is the PVC/haematocrit?

Packed Cell Volume: the volume taken up by red blood cells after centrifugation/"being spun down"

5

What is MCV and the associated calculation?

+ Mean Corpuscular Value/average volume of a single red blood cell

Volume of large no. of RBCs / no. of RBCs

MCV = PCV or Hct / RBC

6

What is MCH and the associated calculation?

+ Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin/average amount of haemoglobin in one RBC

Amount of Hb in large no. of RBCs / no. of RBCs

MCH = Hb / RBC

7

What is MCHC and what is the associated equation?

+ Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration/average concentration of haemoglobin in one/many RBCs

Amount of Hb in one/many RBCs / Volume of one/many RBCs

MCHC = MCH / MCV

8

What is the normal range for MCV?

~ 80-95 fl

9

What is the normal range for MCH?

~ 27-31 pg

10

What is the range of normal values for haemoglobin?

+ Male: 130 - 170 g/L

+ Female: 115 - 160 g/L

11

What is the range of normal values for red cell count?

+ Male: 4.3 - 5.7 x10^12 /L

+ Female: 3.9 - 5.1 x10^12 /L

12

What is the range of normal values for haematocrit or PCV?

+ Male: 0.39 - 0.50 l/l

+ Female: 0.34 - 0.47 l/l

13

What is anaemia?

+ Reduction in haemoglobin or red cell concentration in the blood

+ Reduced supply of oxygen to the tissues (tissue hypoxia)

14

What are some symptoms of anaemia?

+ Fatigue
+ Headaches
+ Palpitations
+ Weakness
+ Breathlessness

15

What are some signs of anaemia?

+ Pallid/Pallor

+ Glossitis (inflamed tongue)

+ Angular Stomatitis

+ Koilonychia (spoon shaped nails)

16

Reasons for anaemia?

+ Not manufacturing the cells: defect in process, lack of building materials, not manufactured correctly

+ Loss of the cells: bleeding? Change in lifespan of cells(destroyed prematurely, defective cells)

17

What are the features of platelets?

+ 2-3 microns
+ Lifespan is 5-9 days
+ 10^11 made daily
+ Made by megakaryocyte, each generating 5,000-10,000
+ Old platelets destroyed by phagocytosis in spleen and by Kupffer cells in the liver
+ Involved in clot formation

18

What is the process following vascular injury involving haemorrhage?

+ Vasoconstriction

+ Coagulation cascade

+ Platelet adhesion and release action

+ Platelet aggregation

+ Fibrin generation