Intro to Health Protection Flashcards Preview

MD2001 > Intro to Health Protection > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro to Health Protection Deck (22):
1

What are the 3 domains of public health?

+ Health protection
+ Health improvement
+ Improving services

2

What is the definition of sporadic regarding occurrence?

Occasional cases occurring irregularly

3

What are the difference types of occurrence?

+ Sporadic
+ Endemic
+ Epidemic
+ Pandemic

4

What is the definition of endemic?

Persistent background level of occurrence (low to moderate levels)

5

What is the definition of epidemic?

Occurrence in excess of the expected level during a given time period

6

What is the definition of pandemic?

Epidemic occurring in or spreading over several countries

7

What is the definition of an outbreak?

+ Two or more people who experience a similar illness or confirmed infection and are linked by a common factor

OR

+ When the observed number of cases unaccountably exceeds the expected number for a given place and time

8

What 3 things form the epidemiological triad?

+ Host
+ Agent
+ Environment

9

Agent: what factors increases likeliness of disease?

+ Virulence
+ Infectiousness
+ Infective dose
+ Drug resistance

10

Host: what factors increase likeliness of disease?

+ Age
+ Genetic susceptibility
+ Nutrition
+ Immune status

11

Environment: what factors increase likeliness of disease?

+ Climate
+ Sanitation
+ Overcrowding
+ Reservoirs of infection

12

Agent: what control measures can help to prevent disease?

+ Treat cases
+ Isolate cases
+ Good prescribing practice (to prevent antibiotic resistance)

13

Host: what control measures can help to prevent disease?

+ Immunisation
+ Prophylactic treatment
+ Good nutrition & general health

14

Environment: what control measures can help to prevent disease?

+ Barriers (e.g PPE, bed nets, condoms)
+ Hygiene measures (e.g hand-washing, reduce overcrowding, food safety, sanitation, water treatment, vector control)

15

What are the links in the chain of infection?

+ Infectious agent
+ Reservoir
+ Portal of exit
+ Mode of transmission
+ Portal of entry
+ Susceptible host

16

Infectious Agent: methods to break the chain of infection?

+ Pasteurisation of milk
+ Chlorination of drinking water
+ Disinfectants

17

Reservoir: methods to break the chain of infection?

+ Medical treatment of person
+ Environmental sanitation
+ Insect or rodent eradication

18

Portal of exit: methods to break the chain of infection?

+ Cover wounds
+ Cover mouth when sneezing
+ Condoms

19

Mode of transmission: methods to break the chain of infection?

+ Hand-washing
+ Isolation
+ Airflow control
+ Food safety practices

20

Portal of entry: methods to break the chain of infection?

+ Masks
+ Insect repellent
+ Wound care
+ Safe sharps disposal
+ Condoms
+ Catheter care
+ Aseptic technique for cannulation

21

Susceptible host: methods to break the chain of infection?

+ Immunisation
+ Good nutrition
+ Medical treatment
+ Recognise high risk patients

22

What are the steps involved in outbreak management?

+ Confirm if it is an outbreak
+ Establish info on causative organism
+ Implement control measures
+ Identify source (and remove if possible)
+ Ensure all cases treated promptly
+ Case finding
+ Surveillance
+ Learn lessons for future