Flashcards in Intro to Health Protection Deck (22):
What are the 3 domains of public health?
+ Health protection
+ Health improvement
+ Improving services
What is the definition of sporadic regarding occurrence?
Occasional cases occurring irregularly
What are the difference types of occurrence?
What is the definition of endemic?
Persistent background level of occurrence (low to moderate levels)
What is the definition of epidemic?
Occurrence in excess of the expected level during a given time period
What is the definition of pandemic?
Epidemic occurring in or spreading over several countries
What is the definition of an outbreak?
+ Two or more people who experience a similar illness or confirmed infection and are linked by a common factor
+ When the observed number of cases unaccountably exceeds the expected number for a given place and time
What 3 things form the epidemiological triad?
Agent: what factors increases likeliness of disease?
+ Infective dose
+ Drug resistance
Host: what factors increase likeliness of disease?
+ Genetic susceptibility
+ Immune status
Environment: what factors increase likeliness of disease?
+ Reservoirs of infection
Agent: what control measures can help to prevent disease?
+ Treat cases
+ Isolate cases
+ Good prescribing practice (to prevent antibiotic resistance)
Host: what control measures can help to prevent disease?
+ Prophylactic treatment
+ Good nutrition & general health
Environment: what control measures can help to prevent disease?
+ Barriers (e.g PPE, bed nets, condoms)
+ Hygiene measures (e.g hand-washing, reduce overcrowding, food safety, sanitation, water treatment, vector control)
What are the links in the chain of infection?
+ Infectious agent
+ Portal of exit
+ Mode of transmission
+ Portal of entry
+ Susceptible host
Infectious Agent: methods to break the chain of infection?
+ Pasteurisation of milk
+ Chlorination of drinking water
Reservoir: methods to break the chain of infection?
+ Medical treatment of person
+ Environmental sanitation
+ Insect or rodent eradication
Portal of exit: methods to break the chain of infection?
+ Cover wounds
+ Cover mouth when sneezing
Mode of transmission: methods to break the chain of infection?
+ Airflow control
+ Food safety practices
Portal of entry: methods to break the chain of infection?
+ Insect repellent
+ Wound care
+ Safe sharps disposal
+ Catheter care
+ Aseptic technique for cannulation
Susceptible host: methods to break the chain of infection?
+ Good nutrition
+ Medical treatment
+ Recognise high risk patients