Flashcards in Blood glucose levels and obesity Deck (33)
What does chronic elevated blood glucose levels lead to?
Atherosclerosis and blood vessel damage
What happens if blood glucose becomes elevated due to untreated diabetes?
The endothelium cells lining the blood vessels absorb far more glucose than normal, causing damage to the blood vessels
What happens if atherosclerosis develops?
Can lead to cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke or peripheral vascular disease, which affects blood vessels
What happens when small blood vessels are damaged by elevated glucose levels?
Results in haemorrhage of blood vessels in the retina, renal failure or peripheral nerve dysfunction
How is blood glucose concentration monitored?
By receptors in the pancreas
Which two hormones does the pancreas control blood glucose levels?
Insulin and glucagon which act antagonistically
How is blood glucose concentration maintained?
By negative feedback control involving the hormones insulin, glucagon and adrenaline
Where are the hormones transported in the blood?
To the liver
What happens when blood glucose concentration increases above the norm?
The pancrease secretes more insulin and less glucagon
What does insulin make the liver cells do?
Become more permeable to glucose and activates the conversion of glucose to glycogen, decreasing the blood glucose concentration
What happens when blood glucose concentration decreases below the norm?
The pancrease secretes more glucagon and less insulin
What does glucagon activate the conversion of?
glycogen to glucose, increasing the blood glucose concentration
During exercise and fight or flight responses what are glucose levels raised by?
By adrenaline released from the adrenal glands, stimulating glucagon secretion and inhibiting insulin secretion
What are diabetics unable to do?
Control their glucose concentration
What can vascular disease be a chronic complication of?
When does Type 1 diabetes usually occur?
When does Type 2 diabetes usually occur?
typically in later in life, in overweight individuals
What can Type 2 diabetes produce?
Insulin, but their cells are less sensitive to it
What can Type 1 diabetes not produce?
unable to produce insulin
What is Type 2 diabetes linked to a decrease in?
The number of insulin receptors in the liver, leading to a failure to convert glucose to glycogen
Examples of an indicator of diabetes
Testing urine for the presence of glucose
Glucose tolerance test
What is obesity a major risk factor for?
Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes
What is obesity characterised by?
Excess body fat in relation to lean body tissue (muscle)
What is BMI a measurement of?
Body fat based on height and weight
What can BMI be used to indicate?
Obesity, overweight, normal or underweight
How to calculate BMI
Weight divided by height squared
What if your BMI is greater than 30
What is one disadvantage of the BMI measurement?
That someone may be classified as overweight or obese when additional weight is not fat but muscle or bone mass
What is required for accurate measurement of body fat