Blood glucose levels and obesity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Blood glucose levels and obesity Deck (33)
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1

What does chronic elevated blood glucose levels lead to?

Atherosclerosis and blood vessel damage

2

What happens if blood glucose becomes elevated due to untreated diabetes?

The endothelium cells lining the blood vessels absorb far more glucose than normal, causing damage to the blood vessels

3

What happens if atherosclerosis develops?

Can lead to cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke or peripheral vascular disease, which affects blood vessels

4

What happens when small blood vessels are damaged by elevated glucose levels?

Results in haemorrhage of blood vessels in the retina, renal failure or peripheral nerve dysfunction

5

How is blood glucose concentration monitored?

By receptors in the pancreas

6

Which two hormones does the pancreas control blood glucose levels?

Insulin and glucagon which act antagonistically

7

How is blood glucose concentration maintained?

By negative feedback control involving the hormones insulin, glucagon and adrenaline

8

Where are the hormones transported in the blood?

To the liver

9

What happens when blood glucose concentration increases above the norm?

The pancrease secretes more insulin and less glucagon

10

What does insulin make the liver cells do?

Become more permeable to glucose and activates the conversion of glucose to glycogen, decreasing the blood glucose concentration

11

What happens when blood glucose concentration decreases below the norm?

The pancrease secretes more glucagon and less insulin

12

What does glucagon activate the conversion of?

glycogen to glucose, increasing the blood glucose concentration

13

During exercise and fight or flight responses what are glucose levels raised by?

By adrenaline released from the adrenal glands, stimulating glucagon secretion and inhibiting insulin secretion

14

What are diabetics unable to do?

Control their glucose concentration

15

What can vascular disease be a chronic complication of?

Diabetes

16

When does Type 1 diabetes usually occur?

In childhood

17

When does Type 2 diabetes usually occur?

typically in later in life, in overweight individuals

18

What can Type 2 diabetes produce?

Insulin, but their cells are less sensitive to it

19

What can Type 1 diabetes not produce?

unable to produce insulin

20

What is Type 2 diabetes linked to a decrease in?

The number of insulin receptors in the liver, leading to a failure to convert glucose to glycogen

21

Examples of an indicator of diabetes

Testing urine for the presence of glucose
Glucose tolerance test

22

What is obesity a major risk factor for?

Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes

23

What is obesity characterised by?

Excess body fat in relation to lean body tissue (muscle)

24

What is BMI a measurement of?

Body fat based on height and weight

25

What can BMI be used to indicate?

Obesity, overweight, normal or underweight

26

How to calculate BMI

Weight divided by height squared

27

What if your BMI is greater than 30

obesity

28

What is one disadvantage of the BMI measurement?

That someone may be classified as overweight or obese when additional weight is not fat but muscle or bone mass

29

What is required for accurate measurement of body fat

Body density

30

When determining body composition using body density measurements what does it depend on?

The fact that fat is less dense than lean tissue