Pathology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) Flashcards Preview

Unit 2 Biology > Pathology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) Deck (28)
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1

What is atherosclerosis?

the accumulation of fatty material (cholesterol) forming an atheroma or plaque

2

Where does an atheroma form?

Beneath the endothelium (inner lining) of the artery wall

3

what happens when an atheroma grows?

The artery thickens and loses its elasticity

4

What does an atheroma do to the diameter of the lumen of an artery?

Reduces the diameter, which restricts blood flow and results in increased blood pressure

5

What is atherosclerosis the root causes of and give examples

Various Cardiovascular diseases

6

Give examples of cardiovascular diseases

Angina, heart attack, stroke and peripheral vascular disorders

7

What happens if an atheroma ruptures?

Damage to the endothelium which causes the release of clotting factors

8

What does clotting factors cause the enzyme prothrombin to be converted into?

Its active form thrombin

9

What does thrombin cause molecules of the soluble plasma protein fibrinogen to form?

Threads of insoluble fibrin protein

10

What does fibrin threads form?

Meshwork that platelets adhere to, forming a blood clot, which seals a wound that provides a scaffold for the formation of scar tissue

11

What is thrombosis a formation of?

A blood clot (thrombus) in a vessel

12

What can thrombosis in a coronary artery lead to ?

Myocardial infarction (MI)

13

What can thrombosis in an artery in the brain lead to?

A stroke

14

What does thrombosis result in?

death of some tissue by the blocked artery as the cells are deprived of oxygen

15

What does peripheral vascular disorders include?

Narrowing of arteries due to atherosclerosis of arteries that is not the heart or brain

16

What can blood clots result in?

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism

17

Where is pain experienced during DVT

leg muscles due to a limited supply of oxygen

18

what is a pulmonary embolism caused by?

Part of a thrombus breaking free and travelling through the bloodstream to the pulmonary artery
It causes a blockage, resulting in chest pain and breathing difficulties

19

What is cholesterol a component of?

Cell membranes and a precursor for steroid synthesis

20

What is most cholesterol synthesised by?

The liver from saturated fats in the diet

21

What do lipoproteins contain?

Lipid and protein

22

What does HDL stand for

High density lipoprotein

23

What does HDL transport?

Excess cholesterol from the body cells to the liver for elimination and os prevents the accumulation of cholesterol in the blood

24

What does HDL transport?

cholesterol to body cells

25

What do LDL receptors do?

Take LDL into the cells, where it releases cholesterol

26

What happens when a cell has sufficient cholesterol

Negative feedback system inhibits the synthesis of new LDL receptors and so LDL circulates in the blood where it may deposit the cholesterol in the arteries, forming atheromas

27

What does a higher ratio of HDL to LDL result in?

Lower blood cholesterol and a reduced chance of atherosclerosis

28

How to lower cholesterol level

Activity raises HDL levels
Dietary changes aim to reduce the levels of fat
Drugs such as stains reduce blood cholesterol by inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol by liver cells