Flashcards in Pathology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) Deck (28)
What is atherosclerosis?
the accumulation of fatty material (cholesterol) forming an atheroma or plaque
Where does an atheroma form?
Beneath the endothelium (inner lining) of the artery wall
what happens when an atheroma grows?
The artery thickens and loses its elasticity
What does an atheroma do to the diameter of the lumen of an artery?
Reduces the diameter, which restricts blood flow and results in increased blood pressure
What is atherosclerosis the root causes of and give examples
Various Cardiovascular diseases
Give examples of cardiovascular diseases
Angina, heart attack, stroke and peripheral vascular disorders
What happens if an atheroma ruptures?
Damage to the endothelium which causes the release of clotting factors
What does clotting factors cause the enzyme prothrombin to be converted into?
Its active form thrombin
What does thrombin cause molecules of the soluble plasma protein fibrinogen to form?
Threads of insoluble fibrin protein
What does fibrin threads form?
Meshwork that platelets adhere to, forming a blood clot, which seals a wound that provides a scaffold for the formation of scar tissue
What is thrombosis a formation of?
A blood clot (thrombus) in a vessel
What can thrombosis in a coronary artery lead to ?
Myocardial infarction (MI)
What can thrombosis in an artery in the brain lead to?
What does thrombosis result in?
death of some tissue by the blocked artery as the cells are deprived of oxygen
What does peripheral vascular disorders include?
Narrowing of arteries due to atherosclerosis of arteries that is not the heart or brain
What can blood clots result in?
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism
Where is pain experienced during DVT
leg muscles due to a limited supply of oxygen
what is a pulmonary embolism caused by?
Part of a thrombus breaking free and travelling through the bloodstream to the pulmonary artery
It causes a blockage, resulting in chest pain and breathing difficulties
What is cholesterol a component of?
Cell membranes and a precursor for steroid synthesis
What is most cholesterol synthesised by?
The liver from saturated fats in the diet
What do lipoproteins contain?
Lipid and protein
What does HDL stand for
High density lipoprotein
What does HDL transport?
Excess cholesterol from the body cells to the liver for elimination and os prevents the accumulation of cholesterol in the blood
What does HDL transport?
cholesterol to body cells
What do LDL receptors do?
Take LDL into the cells, where it releases cholesterol
What happens when a cell has sufficient cholesterol
Negative feedback system inhibits the synthesis of new LDL receptors and so LDL circulates in the blood where it may deposit the cholesterol in the arteries, forming atheromas
What does a higher ratio of HDL to LDL result in?
Lower blood cholesterol and a reduced chance of atherosclerosis