Structure and function of the heart Flashcards Preview

Unit 2 Biology > Structure and function of the heart > Flashcards

Flashcards in Structure and function of the heart Deck (26)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the four chambers of the heart?

Right atrium,right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle

2

What does the right side of the heart do?

Collects deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs to collect oxygen

3

What are the walls of the heart made of and what can they do?

Cardiac muscle that can contract continuously without causing fatigue

4

What does deoxygenated blood returning from the body via the vena cava do?

Fills the atrium (during atrial diastole)

5

What happens when there's' a build of pressure during atrial diastole?

It forces open the atrioventricular (AV) valve and blood flows into the right ventricle during ventricular diastole

6

What does the right atrium do?

Contracts, forcing all the blood into the right ventricle (atrial systole)

7

What happens when the right ventricle is full of blood?

The right ventricle muscular walls contract (ventricular systole), closing the AV valve and forcing the blood up through the semilunar valve and out through the pulmonary artery to the lungs

8

What does the oxygenated blood returning from the lungs via the pulmonary veins do?

Fills the left atrium (during atrial diastole)

9

What happens when there's a build up of pressure during atrial diastole?

It forces open the atrioventricular valve and blood flows into the left ventricle. tHe atrium contracts forcing all the blood into the the ventricle (atrial systole)

10

What happens when the left ventricles full of blood?

The left ventricles muscular walls contact (ventricular systole), closing the Av valve and forcing the blood up through the semilunar valve and out through the aorta to the body's organs.

11

What does the left side of the heart do?

Collects oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the body

12

What are the AV and SL valves responsible for?

Heart sounds with a stethoscope

13

What is cardiac output?

The volume of blood pumped out by either ventricle(out of heart) per minute

14

What is stroke volume?

The volume of blood pumped out by either ventricle during one systole

15

How to calculate cardiac output

C0=HRXSV

16

What is the cardiac cycle?

Pattern of contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole) of the heart muscle in one complete heartbeat

17

Where does the heartbeat originate from?

The heart itself

18

Where is the sinoatrial node(SAN) situated?

In the wall of the right atrium

19

What does the SAN ensure?

That both atria contract simultaneously by sending out electrical impulses that are carried through the muscular walls of the atria

20

what sets the rate at which the cardiac muscle cells contract

SAN

21

What controls the timing of cardiac cells contacting?

By the electrical impulse from SAN spreading through the atria to the atrioventricular node (AVN) and through the ventricles

22

What does the electrical impulses generated in the heart produce?

Currents that can be detected by an electrocardiogram (ECG)

23

Where does blood pressure change?

In the aorta during cardiac cycle

24

How is blood pressure measured ?

By a sphygmomanometer

25

What is a typical reading for blood pressure for a young adult?

120/70-80 mmHg

26

Why is hypertension (high blood pressure) a problem?

A major risk factor for many diseases and conditions, including coronary heart disease and stokes