Biology of controlling fertility Flashcards Preview

Unit 2 Biology > Biology of controlling fertility > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biology of controlling fertility Deck (31)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are infertility and contraception based on?

Biology of fertility

2

Why are males continuously fertile?

Due to relatively constant levels of pituitary hormones

3

When is the highest likelihood of pregnancy resulting from sexual intercourse?

A few days before until 1-2 days after ovulation

4

How can the time of ovulation be estimated?

By the number of days after menstruation, slight rise in body temperature on the day of ovulation and the thinning of cervical mucus

5

Why might a female be infertile?

Failure to ovulate, which is usually the result of a hormone imbalance

6

How can you stimulate ovulation?

Ovulatory of fertility drugs

7

What do some ovulatory drugs work to prevent?

Negative feedback effect of oestrogen on FSH secretion

8

What do some ovulatory drugs mimic the action of?

FSH and LH

9

What can ovulatory drugs cause?

Superovulation, which can result in multiple births

10

What can ovulatory drugs be used to collect?

Ova for IVF programmes

11

What is artificial insemination

A treatment in which semen is inserted into the female reproductive tract without intercourse haven taking place

12

When would you use artificial insemination

When the male has a low sperm count

13

What does artificial insemination involve?

The collecting and combining several samples of semen

14

Why might sperm from a donor be used in artificial insemination?

If male is infertile (sterile)

15

What does IVF involve?

The surgical removal of eggs from ovaries after hormone stimulation, mixing with sperm to achieve fertilisation, incubation of zygotes and uterine implantation

16

When can intracytoplasmic sperm injection be used during IVF?

If mature sperm are defective or very low in number

17

What does ICSI involve?

The head of a sperm being drawn into a needle and injected directly into the egg to achieve fertilisation

18

What is preimplantation genetic diagnosis used in conjunction with IVF for?

To identify single gene disorders and chromosomes abnormalities

19

What do methods of contraception act by preventing?

Fertilisation or implantation

20

Why do we use contraception?

Intentional prevention of pregnancy by natural or artificial methods

21

What does contraception include?

Physical and chemical methods

22

What do physical methods of contraception include?

Barrier methods, avoiding fertile periods, intrauterine devices and sterilisation procedures

23

What are chemical contraceptives based on?

Combinations of synthetic progesterone and oestrogen that mimic negative feedback preventing the release of FSH/LH from the pituitary

24

What are problems with fertility treatments

Risks and ethical issues

25

Physical methods of contraception

Condom,diaphragm, calendar based methods, Intra urenince device, vasectomy and tubal ligation

26

Chemical methods of contraception

Combination contraceptive pill, mini pill and morning after pill

27

What do women show that leads to a fertile period

cyclical fertility

28

How does stimulating ovulation help infertility

Ovulation is stimulated by drugs that prevent the negative feedback effect of oestrogen on FSH secretion

29

What is the process of IVF

1. Surgical removal of eggs from ovaries after hormone stimulation
2.Eggs are mixed with sperm in a culture dish
3.The fertilised eggs are incubated until they have formed at least eight cells and are then transferred to the uterus for implantation
4. Incubation of zygotes and uterine implantation

30

What does the mini pill do?

causing thickening of the cervical mucus