Blood Transfusions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Blood Transfusions Deck (13):
1

ABO system

the presence or absence of specific antigen on the surface of RBC determines blood time in the ABO system. ( O - neither A nor b antigens are present)

2

Antibodies

react against A and B antigens ; ( O - has A and B antibodies and can receive only type O blood)

3

Rh system

D antigen:
1. present - Rh positive
2. absent - Rh negative
There are no naturally occurring antibodies to the Rh (D) antigen. A person with Rh negative blood exposed to 200 mL or more Rh positive blood will develop enough antibodies to mount a severe transfusion reaction with repeat exposure. ( 2 weeks to form)

4

AB +

Universal recipient

5

O -

Universal donor

6

Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction

: Rh, ABO incompatibility; within 15 min;
S/s: 1.severe pain in kidney area and chest;
2. increased temperature ( up to 105 F), HR
3. chills, headache, nausea, dyspnea,
4. anxiety, hypotension, sensation of heat and pain along vein receiving blood.

7

Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction : Interventions

1. Stop transfusion
2. Remove blood product and tubing
3. Maintain IV access, notify doctor
4. Vital signs every 15 min
5. Insert Foley: monitor I&O hourly
6. Assess for shock
7. Send to lab: blood and urine sample; unused portion of unit of blood.
8.Document

8

Allergic reaction (mild to moderate)

allergy to plasma proteins in donors blood; during transfusion or 1 hr after;
S/s: 1. local erythema
2. hives and urticaria
3. itching or pruritus.
Interventions: 1. Stop transfusion + call doctor and blood bank
2. Admin. antihistamines as ordered
3. Vitals every 15 min ( transfusion might be restarted)

9

Allergic reaction ( severe)

allergy to donor antigen - agglutination of RBS blocking blood flow; within 5-15 min.
S/s: 1. Coughing, nausea, vomiting
2. respiration distress, wheezing, hypotension
3. loss of consciousness ; cardiac arrest

10

Allergic reaction ( sever) interventions:

1. Stop transfusion ! Life threatening!
2. Maintain IV; call doctor and blood bank
3. Admin. antihistamine, corticosteroids, epinephrine, and antipyretics.
4. Vitals until stable
5. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation ( if necessary)

11

Infectious disease transmission

microorganism contamination of infused product ; during transfusion to 2 hr after;
S/s: 1. high fever, chills, abdom. cramping
2. vomiting, diarrhea, hypotension
3. flushed skin, back pain

12

infectious disease transmission interventions:

1. Stop transfusion
2. Remove blood product and tubing
3. Maintain IV; call doctor;
4. Monitor vitals
5. Obtain samples of blood culture
6. Admin. IV fluids, broad spectrum antimicrobials, vasopressors and steroids.

13

Autologous blood transfusion

involve collection and infusion of the patients own blood