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Flashcards in Blood Transfusions Deck (13):

ABO system

the presence or absence of specific antigen on the surface of RBC determines blood time in the ABO system. ( O - neither A nor b antigens are present)



react against A and B antigens ; ( O - has A and B antibodies and can receive only type O blood)


Rh system

D antigen:
1. present - Rh positive
2. absent - Rh negative
There are no naturally occurring antibodies to the Rh (D) antigen. A person with Rh negative blood exposed to 200 mL or more Rh positive blood will develop enough antibodies to mount a severe transfusion reaction with repeat exposure. ( 2 weeks to form)


AB +

Universal recipient


O -

Universal donor


Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction

: Rh, ABO incompatibility; within 15 min;
S/s: 1.severe pain in kidney area and chest;
2. increased temperature ( up to 105 F), HR
3. chills, headache, nausea, dyspnea,
4. anxiety, hypotension, sensation of heat and pain along vein receiving blood.


Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction : Interventions

1. Stop transfusion
2. Remove blood product and tubing
3. Maintain IV access, notify doctor
4. Vital signs every 15 min
5. Insert Foley: monitor I&O hourly
6. Assess for shock
7. Send to lab: blood and urine sample; unused portion of unit of blood.


Allergic reaction (mild to moderate)

allergy to plasma proteins in donors blood; during transfusion or 1 hr after;
S/s: 1. local erythema
2. hives and urticaria
3. itching or pruritus.
Interventions: 1. Stop transfusion + call doctor and blood bank
2. Admin. antihistamines as ordered
3. Vitals every 15 min ( transfusion might be restarted)


Allergic reaction ( severe)

allergy to donor antigen - agglutination of RBS blocking blood flow; within 5-15 min.
S/s: 1. Coughing, nausea, vomiting
2. respiration distress, wheezing, hypotension
3. loss of consciousness ; cardiac arrest


Allergic reaction ( sever) interventions:

1. Stop transfusion ! Life threatening!
2. Maintain IV; call doctor and blood bank
3. Admin. antihistamine, corticosteroids, epinephrine, and antipyretics.
4. Vitals until stable
5. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation ( if necessary)


Infectious disease transmission

microorganism contamination of infused product ; during transfusion to 2 hr after;
S/s: 1. high fever, chills, abdom. cramping
2. vomiting, diarrhea, hypotension
3. flushed skin, back pain


infectious disease transmission interventions:

1. Stop transfusion
2. Remove blood product and tubing
3. Maintain IV; call doctor;
4. Monitor vitals
5. Obtain samples of blood culture
6. Admin. IV fluids, broad spectrum antimicrobials, vasopressors and steroids.


Autologous blood transfusion

involve collection and infusion of the patients own blood