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Flashcards in Final 1600 Deck (215):
1

Surgery; improve function, enhances appearance (or both); E: on the nose to correct deviated septum to increase airflow; breast reconstruction after mastectomy.

Reconstructive surgery

2

primary purpose for maintaining NPO status 6-8 hours prior to surgery

Prevent aspiration

3

Classification of medication given to prevent and treat N&V

Antiemetics: Ondansetron ( Zofran)

4

Hand held breathing device; promote complete lung expansion and prevent pulmonary problems

Incentive spirometer

5

Surgical consent: nursing responsibility

Witnessing

6

Sets up OR; coordinates all the activities; make sure supplies are available; positioning of the patient

Circulating nurse

7

Set up sterile field; drape patient; handles all sterile equipment; maintains count of supplies.

Scrub nurse

8

Ensure right patient, right surgical procedure, right site

Time out

9

Collapse or airless condition of all or part of the lungs; caused by hypoventilation; obstrustion, or compression

Atelectasis

10

Excess fluid build up - inflammation; flue like symptoms: cough, fever, dyspnea

Pneumonia

11

Temporally disappearance of peristalsis ; N&V, pain, distention

Paralytic ileus

12

Blood clot in pulmonary artery; sudden onset; dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, restlessness, cough, hemoptysis; Tx: heparin therapy

PE - pulmonary embolism

13

Blood clot from the deep venous thrombus; calf pain, erythema, unilateral swelling

DVT

14

Wound opening ; apply a sterile non adherent or saline dressing; notify surgeon

Dehiscence

15

Wound opening with protrusion of internal organs; surgical emergency.

Evisceration

16

Descriptive term; wound is together without any gaps

Well-approximated - Primary intention

17

Wound healing: shortest, from top down; wound edges closed ; E: sutures

Primary intention

18

Wound healing: prolonged repair, gradual filling with connective tissue; bottom to top; left open; E: pressure ulcers

Secondary intention

19

Wound healing: initially wound left open to heal, debrided; then wound is surgically closed; E: I&D - incision and drainage.

Tertiary intention

20

Grenade looking device; placed in the wound after surgery for removal of the drainage

Jackson-Pratt drain (JP) - suction drain

21

Wound exudate containing bacteria that yellow, brown and green with foul odor

Purulent exudate

22

Constipation, N&V, puritis, sedation, respiratory depression - side effects of ...

Opioids

23

Automated device used by patient to self administer prescribed pain medication

PCA Pump - patient controlled analgesia

24

Source of pain moves or travel to other location

Radiation pain

25

Term used to describe pain such as sharp, aching, or stabbing

Quality pain

26

Common side effect of opioid usage; TX: Mag-ox (Magnesium Oxide)

Constipation

27

Intervention that is most important to teach client about identifying fluid volume status

Weigh yourself daily

28

Fluid compartment that is equivalent to 40 % - 2/3 of total body water

ICF - intracellular fluid / compartment

29

Movement of fluid through a permeable membrane due to hydrostatic pressure

Filtration

30

Free movement of particles from high concentration to low concentration

Diffusion

31

Diffusion across a cell membrane that requires assistance; E: insulin/glucose; sodium pumps

Facilitated diffusion

32

Movement of water from lower to higher concentration of solute ; concentration gradient must exist; particles cannot cross

Osmosis

33

0.9% sodium chloride (NS); lactated ringers, D5W

Isotonic solutions - crystalloids

34

Same osmolarity as blood (270-300); no fluid shift : outside = inside

Isotonic solutions

35

0.45 % sodium chloride ( 1/2 NS)

Hypotonic solution

36

Outside (concentration) < inside ; moves fluid into the cell - cells swell , enlarge

Hypotonic solution

37

D5LR, D5 0.45 NS, 3 % NS

Hypertonic solutions

38

Outside > inside ; pulls fluid from cells - cells shrink; think of fluid overload (cells are overloaded with fluid)

Hypertonic solution

39

400-600 ml is min amount of urine per day needed to excrete toxic waste products

Obligatory urine output

40

500-1000 ml/day water loss from skin, lungs and stool; cannot be controlled

Insensible water loss

41

hormone secreted when sodium level in ECF decreased; prevent Na+water loss ; acts on kidney nephrons

Aldosterone

42

Hormone secreted when sodium level increases ; acts on kidney tubules - water is reabsorbed to dilute blood.

Antidiuretic hormone - ADH

43

Inflammation of vein; redness, pain hardened

Phlebitis

44

Leakage of IV fluid in extravascular tissue; cool, moist , redness

Infiltration

45

Leaking of chemical (vesicant ) or medication

Extravasation

46

Affects primary CNS ; altered mental status, cerebral edema, confusion

Na - where Na goes, H2O follows ; 135-145

47

Confusion, muscle weakness ; caused by : diuretic use, low salt diet, decreased aldosterone secretion ; TX: 2-3 % sodium chloride

Hyponatremia

48

Restlessness , seizures, muscle twitching; caused by renal failure, exercise, diaphoresis, fever; TX: diuretics, 0.45%NaCl

Hypernatremia

49

Affects cardiac/ respiratory/musculoskeletal systems

Potassium K ; 3.5-5

50

Irregular pulse , dysrythmias , muscle weakness, confusion; caused by diuretics, anorexia, Digoxin toxicity , gastric suction, V&D, hyperaldosteronism . TX: diluted IV K

Hypokalemia

51

Client is admitted with K 2.1; Order: 40 KCL STAT; what is most appropriate method for administering?

Diluted IV; never as IV push; never exceed 20 mEq/hr; monitor for infiltration

52

Crdiac irregularities, muscle twitching, paresthesia (tingling or numbness), hypotension; caused by renal failure, K sparing diuretics (Aldosterone), stored bank blood; TX: Kayexalate (stool); emergency : Insulin IV + CaCl + D50

Hyperkalemia

53

Stored in bone – strength & density, skeletal
contractions, nerve impulses; absorption requires active form of vitamin D (parathyroid hormone control)

Calcium 9-10.5

54

Parathesia, chvosteks( facial twitching), trousseus (spasm + palmar flexion) sign, deep tendon reflex, cardiac changes, seizures ; caused by inadequate intake Ca/ Vitamin D; lactose intolerance , Chrons disease; TX: IV Ca, Vitamin D

Hypocalcemia

55

High BP, HR; confusion, fatigue, kidney stones; caused by hyperparathyroidis; poor kidney excretion; TX: IV 0.9 NaCl, Lasix, Phosphorus,Calcitonin.

Hypercalcemia

56

Inverse relationship w/ Ca; assist cell growth & metabolism;
Treat according to Ca level;

Phosphorus 3 -4.5

57

What tonicity of fluid will used to rehydrate the cells

Hypotonic

58

Solutions with small molecules that flow easily from the bloodstream into cells

Crystalloids - Isotonic, Hypotonic, Hypertonic

59

Solution used for burns, GI tract fluid loss, acute blood loss; Caution: renal disease : K component; liver failure: lactic acidosis ( cannot convert lactate into bicarbonate) .

LR - Lactated Ringers

60

Solutions with molecules too large to pass through semipermeable membrane; they remain in intravascular compartment; volume expanders; used: severe burns, blood loss, shock

Colloids (always hypertonic ): Albumin, Dextran, Mannitol, Hespan (Hetastarch)

61

Fluids classified as

1.Crystalloids
2. Colloids
3. Blood products

62

Specific gravity

1.005-1.030

63

What are two the most common causes of kidney failure

1. Diabetes
2. Hypertension

64

Types of ARF

1. Prerenal
2. Intrarenal/intrinsic
3. Post renal

65

Type of ARF; decreased blood flow to the kidneys; caused by shock, HF, PE, sepsis; s/s: hypotension, decreased UO, tachycardia

Prerenal

66

Type of ARF; Kidney damage d/t acute tubular nephrosis, infection, toxins;S/S: oliguria, anuria, HTN, SOB

Intrarenal/intrinsic

67

Type of ARF; Obstruction to outflow of urine; S/S: Lethargy, signs of uremia

Post renal

68

Nephrotoxic drugs and radiocontrast dies cause what type of acute renal failure ARF

Intrarenal failure

69

100-400 ml in 24 hr / decreased urine output

Oliguria

70

> 2000 ml in 24 hr; increased urine output

Polyuria

71

Less than 100 ml in 24 hr

Anuria

72

Painful urination

Dysuria

73

Chronic renal failure dietary restrictions

1. Protein
2. Fluid
3. K
4. Na
5. P high causes hypocalcemia and osteodystrophy - take phosphate binder - Amphojel (constipation)

74

Increased Na, K, P, Mg; low Ca; metabolic acidosis - Kussmaul respiration ; hypertension, hyperlipidemia, HF, pericarditis, anemia, uremia.

Chronic kidney disease - ESKD ( GFR<15)

75

Halitosis, stomatitis, anorexia, N&V, peptic ulcers, pruritus, uremic frost, bruises

Uremia

76

Type of dialysis; uses the principles of diffusion and ultrafilteration; access: fistula, graft, dialysis cath (Quinton)

Hemodialysis

77

Hemodialysis; to check potency

Palpate for the thrill; auscultate for the bruit

78

Disequilibrium syndrome, muscle cramps, hemorrhage, air embolus, hemodynamic complications (hypotension, anemia),cardiac dysrhythmias are complications of ...

Hemodialysis

79

Type of dialysis ; uses the principles of diffusion and osmosis ; instilled into the peritoneal cavity via permanent indwelling catheter ; sterile technique (wear mask)

Peritoneal dialysis

80

Peritonitis, Bleeding, Leakage, Abdominal hernias are complications of ...

Peritoneal dialysis

81

S/s: hematuria, facial edema, fluid overload, SOB, proteinuria; DX: GFR, ASO titer ( strep bacteria)

Acute glomerulonephritis

82

S/s: hypertension, fatigue, occasional edema; decreased kidney function

Chronic glomerulonephritis

83

S/s: flank/back pain, fever, N/V, burning, urgency ; DX: U/A (WBS, C&S)

Acute pyelonephritis

84

S/s: hypertension, Na excretion, nocturia; DX: U/A

Chronic pyelonephritis

85

Microbial infection that invade kidneys in the renal pelvis

Pyelonephritis

86

Presence of calculi ( stones) in the urinary tract

Urolithiasis (urinary calculi )

87

Type of incontinence; causes involuntary loss of bladder control associated with a strong urge to void

Urge incontinence

88

Type of incontinence; occurs when detrusor muscle fails to contract and the bladder become overdistended

Overflow incontinence

89

Type of incontinence; most common; loss of small amount of urine during coughing, sneezing, jogging, lifting

Stress incontinence

90

Type of incontinence; result of factor other than the abnormal function of the bladder or urethra; E: loss of cognitive function

Functional incontinence

91

Medical term for surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder

Cystectomy

92

Classification of UTI

1. Upper UTI : pyelonephritis
2. Lower UTI: cystitis

93

S/s: dysuria, frequency, urgency, hesitancy, hematuria, itching, pyuria ...mental status changes

Cystitits

94

Urinalysis : protein

0.8 mg/dl

95

Urinalysis: RBC

0-2 per high power field

96

Urinalysis: WBC

M: 0-3; F:0-5

97

Increased glomerular permeability; large molecules pass from blood into the urine; S/s: massive proteinuria, lipiduria, edema...

Nephrotic syndrome

98

pH that is not compatible with life !!!

< 6.8 or >7.8

99

When one is hypoventilating the body doing what ?

Retaining CO2

100

Prolong vomiting and nasogastric suctioning leads to acid deficit , causing

Metabolic alkalosis

101

Urinary diversion, divert urine into surgically created pouch or pocket that functions as a bladder. The stoma is continent, and the patient removes urine by regular self-catheterization

Kock's pouch - ileal reservoir

102

Internal reservoir created from part of the small intestine; connected to the urethra; learn to void normally

Neobladder

103

Type of urinary diversion; diverts urine to the large intestine; no stoma required; urine excreted with bowel movement

Uterosigmodoistomy

104

Acid-base balance regulatory mechanisms

1. Chemical : fast acting
2. Respiratory: minutes
3. Renal : hours-days

105

Normal range pH

7.35-7.45

106

Normal range CO2

35-45

107

Normal range HCO3-

21-28

108

Respiratory acidosis

pH < 7.35; PaCo2 > 45

109

Normal range O2

80-100

110

Hypoventilation : deep, slow, shallow breathing; retaining CO2; S/s: confusion, drowsiness, tachycardia, dysrhythmias , elevated K; TX: manual ventilation

Respiratory acidosis

111

Hyperventilation: rapid, shallow breathing; blowing off CO2; S/s: numbness and tingling, diaphoresis, tetanic spasms of arms and legs (low Ca) - acute resp.failure; TX: nonrebreather, paper bag

Respiratory alkalosis

112

Respiratory alkalosis

pH > 7.45; PaCo2 < 35

113

Metabolic acidosis

pH < 7.35; HCO3 < 21

114

Anxiety, fear, pain, fever, sepsis, CNS lesions, resp. stimulants will lead to ...

Respiratory alkalosis

115

Head injury, meds (opioids) , spinal cord injury, atelectasis , pneumonia will lead to ...

Respiratory acidosis

116

Diarrhea, intestinal fistulas, renal failure, DKA, starvation , pancreatitis will lead to ...

Metabolic acidosis

117

Ingestion of antacids, excess use of HCO3, lactate in dialysis, vomiting , gastric suctioning , diuretics

Metabolic alkalosis

118

Kussmaul breathing , N/V, warmed flushed skin, confusion; (high K); TX: Hydration

Metabolic acidosis

119

Metabolic alkalosis

pH > 7.45; HCO3 > 28

120

Weakness, muscle twitching, tetany, dizziness, seizures, N/V, respiratory depression, low Ca ; TX: Diamox (excrete HCO3)

Metabolic alkalosis

121

Normal RR

12-20

122

If the pH is outside of normal range it is ...

Uncompensated (or partially compensated )

123

If the pH is within normal , while other values remain abnormal it is ...

Compensated

124

Acid base balance occurs through control of ... production and elimination

Hydrogen ions H+

125

COPD - CO2 retained - pH decreases - kidney excretes more H+ and increase reabsorption of bicarbonate back into the blood - example of ...

Renal compensation (corrects respiratory problem)

126

Running - build up of lactic acid - increase in H+ - decrease in pH - breathing is triggered - loose of carbon dioxide - example of

Respiratory compensation (corrects metabolic problem )

127

Air passing through constricted bronchioles is the symptom of what respiratory disease ?

Asthma

128

COPD characterized by what two symptoms ?

Bronchospasm (chronic bronchitis)+ dyspnea (emphysema)

129

What is the best nursing intervention for person who has Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Airborne precaution

130

The loss of lung elasticity and hyperinflation of the lungs are two major causes of ...

Emphysema

131

Intermittent, reversible airflow obstruction; affects only airways; inflammation (mucus) and airway hyperresponsivenes (bronchospasm) ; wheezing, SOB, chest tightness

Asthma

132

Inhaled corticosteroid, prevent asthma attack caused by inflammation; used daily; reduces local immunity - good mouth care;

Flovent (Fluticasone)

133

Short acting beta 2 agonist (SABA); rescue drug; relaxes bronchial smooth muscles ; used 5 min before other inhaled drug; monitor HR.

Albuterol (Proventil)

134

Oral corticosteroid; rescue drug; step 6 asthma; side effects: GI ulceration; fat redistribution; weight gain; hyperglycemia ; reduces all immunity responses

Prednisone (Deltasone)

135

Inflammatory process resulting in excess fluid in the lungs; triggered by infective organisms; S/s:flushed cheeks , bright eyes, anxious expression, fever, chest pain, dehydration.... ; vaccine available ( older adults repeat every 5 years )

Pneumonia

136

Highly communicable; airborne transmission ; S/s persistent cough, hemoptysis, fever, anorexia, night sweats, fatigue ...

Pulmonary Tuberculosis

137

Combination TB drug therapy ; take 6 month or longer; strict adherence ; stain skin and urine; interact with oral contraceptives; avoid drinking; risk for liver toxicity;

Isoniazid (INH) + Rifampin

138

Patient is no longer contagious ...

after 2-3 weeks of taking meds; when 3 sputum cultures are negative

139

Guaifenesin

expectorant - thin secretions

140

Acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)

Mycolitic - destroys or dissolves mucus

141

Also known as silent disease; this chronic condition is caused by bone loss due to decreased bone density

Osteoporosis

142

What is the most common method reducing immobilizing fractures ?

ORIF - open reduction internal fixation

143

This is a two-part surgery. First, the broken bone is reduced or put back into place. Next, an internal fixation device is placed on the bone; this can be screws, plates, rods, or pins used to hold the broken bone together.

ORIF - open reduction internal fixation

144

Usually results from a long bone fracture ; occurs 12-48 hrs of injury or illness; chest pain, hypoxia, dyspnea, petechiae; ND: Impaired gas exchange

Fat embolism

145

An emergent situation is caused by blood or fluid build up at the site of injury; emergency fasciotomy is treatment of choice ; kidney failure due to myoglobin release ( rhabdomyolysis)

Acute compartment syndrome

146

Type of fracture; no visible wound

Closed - simple

147

Type of fracture; external wound

Open - compound

148

Assessment of neurovascular status

1. Pain
2. Pallor
3. Paresthesia
4. Pulselessness
5. Pressure
6. Paralysis

149

Fractures ND

Acute pain

150

Osteoporosis ND

Risk for falls

151

Pelvic fracture ND

Risk for bleeding - hypovolemic shock

152

Can be acute ( fever, swelling, erythema, bone pain) or chronic ( ulceration, pain, drainage) ; caused by staph or MRSA ...

Osteomyelitis

153

At risk for dislocation; ND: risk for bleeding, infection; abduction pillow between pt's legs; heels of the bed; 6 P's; move day after surgery; 90 degree rule

Post op hip replacement

154

Application of pulling force to a part of the body; skin (velcro boot); skeletal ( pins, wires), brace.; 6 P's; pain; elevate above heart; T; ice ;ND: Acute pain; Risk for infection

Traction care

155

Hold bones in place after reduction; handle with palms of hands ; 6 P's; circulation; nerve damage; infection: "hot spots"; muscle atrophy; ND: Acute pain, Risk for infection

Cast care

156

System in which pins or wires are inserted through the skin and affected bone and then connected to a rigid external frame; increased risk for pin site infection that can lead to osteomyelitis ; monitor every 8-12 hours

External fixation

157

Long term glycemic control determined by ...

HgA1C

158

The best 3 ways to manage diabetes

1. Education
2. Diet
3. Exercise

159

Shaking, sweating , tachycardia, dizziness, anxiousness, irritability are clinical manifestations of ... ; BG < 70.

Hypoglycemia

160

Which type of insulin has onset 1-3 hrs , peak 4-12, duration 16-24

Intermediate

161

This type of drug therapy lowers both basal and post meal glucose level in type II diabetics reducing hepatic glucose production and the tissue sensitivity to insulin

Metformin (Glucophage)

162

Carbohydrate replacement ( 15-20 g of glucose); Glucagon (subcut or IM); 50 % Dextrose (IV); - are treatments of ...

Hypoglycemia

163

Polyuria (dehydration) - Polydipsia (cell starvation )- Polyphagia - no insulin - fats break down ( ketones) -metabolic acidosis ( Kussmaul )- fruity breath; BG > 250

Hyperglycemia

164

Caused by infection; other stressors, 3Ps, dry skin, Kussmaul, lethargy, dehydration, BG > 300; sudden onset ; Type 1 diabetes complication ...

DKA - diabetic ketoacidosis

165

During 24 hrs - 5-10 L of fluids - isotonic saline; 5%D in 0.45 saline; regular insulin by continuous IV infusion ; IV potassium ; are treatments of ...

DKA

166

Caused by infection, poor fluid intake; altered CNS function: seizures, myoclonic jerking; severe dehydration; BG > 600; gradual onset; complication of type 2 diabetes ....

HHS - hyperosmolar state

167

Systemic effects of diabetes : chronic complications

1. Macrovascular : arteriosclerotic and atherosclerotic changes in large arteries and veins; coronary artery disease(MI), cerebral artery disease (stroke), peripheral vascular disease
2. Microvascular changes : nephropathy (ESKD), retinopathy, neuropathy (foot ulcers)

168

Long - acting Insulin; never mixed; no peak time

Glargine (Lantus)

169

Intermidiate - acting insulin ; peak time 6-12 hrs; can be mixed with regular

NPH (Humulin N, Novolin N)

170

Short - acting insulin; peak time 2-5 hrs; can be mixed with NPH;

Regular ( Humulin R, Novolin R)

171

Rapid - acting insulin ; peak time 0.5-1.5 hr;

Lispro (Humalog)

172

Diagnosis of diabetes : obtained on 2 occasions

1. FBG > 126 (100) - 8 hrs no caloric intake
2. Glucose tolerance test > 200 (140) - 2 hrs post load
3. HbA1C > 6.5 (4-6) - glycemic control over 120 days

173

Coplications of insulin therapy

1. Hypoglycemia
2. Lipoatrophy (tx: inject insulin at the edge)
3. Lipohypertrophy (tx: rotate inj site )
4. Fasting hyperglycemia
- Dawn phenomenon (tx: more insulin before bed)
- Samogyi phenomenon (tx: more food before bed )

174

This type of drug increase insulin secretion in the treatment of type 2 diabetes ; side effect - hypoglycemia

Sulfonylurea agents : 1st generation - Tolbutamide ; 2nd generation - Glipizide

175

This type of drug improves tissue sensitivity to insulin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes ; not for patients with liver impairment; can take 2-3 months to work;

TZD - Avandia

176

What is the treatment of choice for pt. experiencing hypovolemic shock due to pelvic fracture

Crystalloids, colloids, blood products, plasma expenders

177

The bone marrow produces ...

RBC + WBC + Platelets

178

What precaution should be implemented with thrombocytopenia ?

Bleeding precaution

179

Low WBC, CD4 count less than 200, fever, night sweats, and opportunistic infection present manifestations of ...

AIDS

180

Everyone who has HIV infection has AIDS, but not everyone who has AIDS has HIV ... True or False ?

False

181

Organisms that are present in normal environment and usually kept in check by normal immune response ; can be protozoan , bacterial , fungal or viral

Opportunistic infection

182

Use of strategies to prevent the actual occurance of cancer : avoid carcinogens; modify associated factors ( alcohol, high fat, low fiber, multiple sex partners); remove at risk tissues ( moles, breasts, colon polyps); chemoprevention ( vitamin D + tamoxifen - breast cancer) ; vaccination

Primary prevention

183

use of screening strategies to detect cancer early, ; yearly mammography (> 40 ); colonoscopy ( 50); digital rectal examination ( men > 50)

Secondary prevention

184

Type of surgery; removing part of the tumor

Cytoreductive / debulking surgery

185

1. Neutropenia: low WBC; infection risk - sepsis
2. Thrombocytopenia : low platelets; risk for excessive bleeding
3. Anemia: low RBC; ineffective tissue perfusion
4. N&V : antiemetics
5. Mucositis ; stomatitis
6. Alopecia ( injury to scalp, body image)
7. Peripheral neuropathy : prevent injury

Side effects of chemotherapy

186

Oncologic emergency; organisms enter bloodstream ; vasodiilation, hypotension, high T, WBC, RR; low urinary output ; hypoxia .... symptoms of ...

Sepsis / Septicemia

187

Oncologic emergency ; problem with blood clotting process; clots block blood vessels (pain, oliguria, bowel necrosis... ) ;tx: anticoagulants; bleeding from many sites - hemorrhage ; tx: give clotting factors

DIC - Disseminated intravascular coagulation

188

Oncologic emergency; seen in carcinoma of the lungs; can occur very quickly; water is reabsorbed causing fluid overload, hyponatremia (seizures, coma), muscle cramps, fatigue; pulmonary edema - HF. TX: fluid restriction , Na intake, cancer therapy .

SIDH - syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone

189

Oncologic emergency; damage occurs when a tumor enters the spinal cord or vertebra collapse from tumor degradation of the bone ; S/s: back pain, paralysis, numbness, tingling, muscle weakness ; tx: palliative

Spinal Cord Compression

190

Oncologic emergency; SVC is compressed or obstructed by tumor growth; blockage of blood flow to head, neck, upper trunk; edema of face; Stokes sign (collar); tx: radiation

SCV- Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

191

Oncologic emergency; tumor cells destroyed rapidly (K+purines) - faster than body can eliminate them - ARF ( hyperuricemia) ; tx: Hydration ( 3-5 L of water day before, day of, 3 days after chemo or radiation)

Tumor Lysis Syndrome

192

Most common symptom - fatigue; dyspnea on exertion, orthostatic hypotension, intolerance to cold temperature, clublike nails, pallor of ears, headache ... symptoms of ...

Anemia

193

Red meat, organ meat, egg yolks, kidney beans, leafy green vegetables, raisins are food sources of ...

Iron

194

Transfusion reaction; severe pain in kidney and chest; high T, HR, low BP ....

Acute hemolytic reaction

195

Transfusion reaction; coughing, wheezing, N&V , low BP ....

Severe allergic reaction

196

transfusion reaction; high T; chills, flushed skin, back pain, V&D, low BP ...

Bacterial reaction (infectious)

197

Transfusion reaction; high BP, HR, dyspnea, confusion, jugular vein distended

Circulatory overload

198

The purpose of this type of treatment is to destroy cancer cells with minimal exposure to normal cells ....

Radiation

199

Type of radiation; distant ; external to the patient; patient is not radioactive and is not a hazard to others

Teletherapy

200

Type of radiation; close; direct contact with tumor tissue; uses radioactive isotopes ( solid form or within body fluids); patient is hazard to others

Brachytherapy

201

HIV : precaution

Standard

202

Testing for HIV

1. Lymphocyte count : CD4 + T cell; WBC
2. Antibody tests : (made 3 weeks - 3 months ) : ELISA, Western blot;
3. Viral load testing (monitor treatment)

203

HAART; inhibit viral replication; important issue - drug resistant mutations in the HIV organisms ( bc of missed doses of drug)

Antiretroviral therapy

204

Protozoal infection; S/s: dyspnea, dry cough, fever, fatigue, weight loss...

PCP - pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia

205

Fungul infection; S/s: mouth - cottage cheese-like yellowish white plaque and inflammation ; women - persistent yeast infection ....

Candida albicans

206

Bacterial infection ; systemic; S/s: fever, weight loss, organ disease, swollen lymph glands ....

MAC - mucobacterium avium complex

207

Viral infection; S/s: numbness and tingling before blister forms; fever, bleeding, pain ...

HSV - herpes simplex virus

208

Cancer; develops as small, purpulish brown raised lesions that are not painful; occur anywhere on the body

Kaposi's sarcoma (HIV pts)

209

Benign breast problems of women approaching menopause; caused by dilation and thickening of collecting ducts

Ductal ectasia

210

What type of breast surgery removes breast tissue , nipple , lymph nodes and leaves muscle intact

Modified radical mastectomy

211

Uterine tissue implantation outside of uterine cavity

Endometriosis

212

Caused by changes in the level of serotonin fluid shifts; physical and emotional symptoms occur in women ages 20-40 : depression, angry outbursts, ...

PMS - premenstrual syndrome

213

What are two characteristic symptoms of BPH

Hyperplasia + Hypertrophy

214

Alpha adrenargic receptors; constrict the prostate gland

Flomax

215

male reproductive emergency in which spermatic cord and blood vessels are twisted

Testicular scrotal torsion