Flashcards in HIV Deck (21):
human immunodeficiency virus
once in the blood - HIV "hijacks" certain cells - CD4+ T-cells - when infected - HIV factory - gradually CD4+ T cell count fall - viral numbers rise - patient dies of oportunistic infections or cancer.
800 - 1000 in healthy person; function - direct immune system defenses + regulates the activity of all immune system cells .
Body fluids with highest concentration of HIV
semen + blood
Abstinence + Be faithful + Condoms;
sharing needles; contaminated blood products; drug users - clean with household bleach
25 % not using drug therapy
8 % using drug therapy
Diagnosis of AIDS
requires that person be HIV positive and have either a CD4+ T cell count of less that 200 cells/mm3 or an opportunistic infection
caused by organisms that are present as part of the normal environment and kept in check by normal immune function .
Signs & Symptoms : HIV
50%-90% of people first infected with HIV develop an acute infection within 4 weeks
including. This may present as:
o Night Sweats/ Chills
o Muscle Aches/ Joint Pain
o Sore Throat
1.CBC (Lymphocyte Counts/ CD4+ T-cell &CD8+ T-cell counts)
2. Antibody Tests : ELISA & Western Blot
3. Viral Load Testing : useful in monitoring disease progression and treatment effectiveness.
HIV vs. AIDS
HIV is the virus that causes AIDS
• AIDS is diagnosed when:
• HIV+ Infection AND
• CD4 Count is less than 200 OR
• Opportunistic Infections
1. PCP ( most common) : dyspnea, tachycardia, dry cough, fever, fatigue, weight loss.
2. Toxoplasmosis encephalitis ( cat feces, undercooked meet): changes in mental status, neurologic deficit, fever, headache
3. Cryptosporidiosis ( intestinal infection): diarrhea, electrolyte imbalance
1. Candida albicans (intestinal flora) : mouth - cottage cheese like yellowish white plague; Vaginal candidiasis (yeast infection)
2. Cryptococcosis ( debilitating meningitis) : fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion.
3. Histoplasmosis - begins as respiratory infection, spread.
1. MAC - mucobacterium avium complex (most common) : systemic infection - fever, debility, weight loss, malaise, swollen lymph glands, organ disease .
2. Tuberculosis Mucobacterium : cough, dyspnea, chest pain, fever, chills, night sweats, weight loss, anorexia.
1. CMV - cytomegalovirus - affect many sites
2. HSV - herpes simplex virus : perirectal, oral, genital areas: numbness + tingling before blister forms ; fever , bleeding, pain, lymph notes enlargement
3. VZV - varicella - zoster virus: previous diagnosis of chicken pox - shingles.
1. Kaposis sarcoma (KS) develops as small purpulish brown raised lesions ( not painful) ; can occur anywhere on the body.
2. Malignant lymphomas
gonadal dysfunction, body shape changes, adrenal insufficiency, diabetes.
only inhibits viral replication and does not kill the virus ; coctails (multiple drugs are used). Important issue - drug- resistant mutations in the HIV organism .