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Flashcards in HIV Deck (21):
1

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

2

Retrovirus

once in the blood - HIV "hijacks" certain cells - CD4+ T-cells - when infected - HIV factory - gradually CD4+ T cell count fall - viral numbers rise - patient dies of oportunistic infections or cancer.

3

CD4+ T-cells

800 - 1000 in healthy person; function - direct immune system defenses + regulates the activity of all immune system cells .

4

Body fluids with highest concentration of HIV

semen + blood

5

Sexual transmission

Abstinence + Be faithful + Condoms;

6

Parenteral Transmission

sharing needles; contaminated blood products; drug users - clean with household bleach

7

Perinatal Transmission

25 % not using drug therapy
8 % using drug therapy

8

Needle stick

Standard precautions

9

Diagnosis of AIDS

requires that person be HIV positive and have either a CD4+ T cell count of less that 200 cells/mm3 or an opportunistic infection

10

Opportunistic infections

caused by organisms that are present as part of the normal environment and kept in check by normal immune function .

11

Signs & Symptoms : HIV

50%-90% of people first infected with HIV develop an acute infection within 4 weeks
including. This may present as:
o Fever
o Night Sweats/ Chills
o Headache
o Muscle Aches/ Joint Pain
o Rash
o Sore Throat

12

Testing

sting
1.CBC (Lymphocyte Counts/ CD4+ T-cell &CD8+ T-cell counts)
2. Antibody Tests : ELISA & Western Blot
3. Viral Load Testing : useful in monitoring disease progression and treatment effectiveness.

13

HIV vs. AIDS

HIV is the virus that causes AIDS
• AIDS is diagnosed when:
• HIV+ Infection AND
• CD4 Count is less than 200 OR
• Opportunistic Infections

14

Protozoal Infections

1. PCP ( most common) : dyspnea, tachycardia, dry cough, fever, fatigue, weight loss.
2. Toxoplasmosis encephalitis ( cat feces, undercooked meet): changes in mental status, neurologic deficit, fever, headache
3. Cryptosporidiosis ( intestinal infection): diarrhea, electrolyte imbalance

15

Fungul Infections

1. Candida albicans (intestinal flora) : mouth - cottage cheese like yellowish white plague; Vaginal candidiasis (yeast infection)
2. Cryptococcosis ( debilitating meningitis) : fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion.
3. Histoplasmosis - begins as respiratory infection, spread.

16

Bacterial Infections

1. MAC - mucobacterium avium complex (most common) : systemic infection - fever, debility, weight loss, malaise, swollen lymph glands, organ disease .
2. Tuberculosis Mucobacterium : cough, dyspnea, chest pain, fever, chills, night sweats, weight loss, anorexia.

17

Viral Infections

1. CMV - cytomegalovirus - affect many sites
2. HSV - herpes simplex virus : perirectal, oral, genital areas: numbness + tingling before blister forms ; fever , bleeding, pain, lymph notes enlargement
3. VZV - varicella - zoster virus: previous diagnosis of chicken pox - shingles.

18

Cancer/ Malignancies

1. Kaposis sarcoma (KS) develops as small purpulish brown raised lesions ( not painful) ; can occur anywhere on the body.
2. Malignant lymphomas

19

Endocrine complications:

gonadal dysfunction, body shape changes, adrenal insufficiency, diabetes.

20

Antiretroviral Therapy

only inhibits viral replication and does not kill the virus ; coctails (multiple drugs are used). Important issue - drug- resistant mutations in the HIV organism .

21

HAART

Highly active antiretroviral therapy.