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Flashcards in BM1022 Deck (20):
1

Paul enrlich

Discovered chemotherapeutic agent to treat syphilis

2

Edward Jenner

He pioneered the vaccination before world war 2 (1940s)

3

Successes of treatment and prevention

Small pox virus no longer exists in a viable form

Vaccination programmes for polio have all but eliminated the disease form the wesern world

4

Classification of life

Archaea
Bacteria
Eucarya

5

Prokaryote

Pro (primitive) karyote (nucleus)
Bacteria alone possess this cell type
No membrane apart from cytoplasmic
Are very small bc the cell structures required to function are minimal

6

Eukaryotes

Ey (true/normal)
Microbes with this cells are fungi
Protozoa, and multicellular parasites
Have membrane bound structure

7

Viruses

Not cells
Must associate with a living cell in order to reproduce
Carry genetic info, have no membranes and can't generate energy

8

Prions

Only protein, no cellular structure
No nucleic acid

9

Basic principles of microbial physiology related to smallness

The smaller the cell the greater the surface volume ratio

Small cells have more efficient exchange with the environment
Cell size is said to be inversely related metabolic rate and thus growth
Infection must be taken seriously and treated IMMEDIATELY

10

Prokaryote cytoplasmic membrane

No sterols generally
Respiration is associated with the bacterial plasma membrane. Respiration is a process which consumes oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide and results in the liberation of energy

11

Cell walls

Most microbes possess a cell wall, expectioms include mycoplasma and Protozoa

12

Cell wall of bacteria

Function; confers rigidity, shape and integrity
Lysozyme removes cell wall- leads to lysis

13

Gram-positive

Gram-negative

Possess a thicker and simpler wall than gram negative

Wall is structurally complex with a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer layer of lipopolysaccharide

14

Gram staining reaction and therapy

Antibiotics like penicillin inhibit synthesis of new cell wall material by preventing cross-linking chemical bridges forming between adjacent peptidoglycan chains. Gram negative organisms are insensitive to penicillin- outer membrane responsible

15

Bacteria

Prokaryotic cells which generally lack membrane bound organelles

Small, simple felled, shapes described as bacillus, coccus, and spiral

Cell walls: are mostly rendered rigid by a complex carb termed peptidoglycan

They decide by binary fission (two equal daughter cells produced ) sexual reproduction rare

16

Classification of bacteria

Within the prokaryotic kingdom, bacteria are assigned two names, a genus and a species

E.G. Staphylococcus aureus

17

Structure of bacteria

The cell wall structure of bacteria is differentiated into 2 groups by the gram stain- as either having s thick layer of peptidoglycan rich in teichoic acids (GP-blue) or thin layer of peptidoglycan with an outer membrane of lipopolysaccharides (GM-red/pink)

Extra cellular structures enable motility, attachment and transfer of genetic material
Which may enhance virulence and include dim raw, pili, flagella and capsule

18

Morphology of bacteria

Cocci (round)
Bacilli (rod)
Spiral (corkscrew)

19

Bacteria growth requirements

Aerobes- those that require oxygen for growth

Facultative anaerobes - those that can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen

Anaerobes- those that are inhibited by oxygen

20

Diagnosis of bacterial infection

Relies of culturing the bacteria from a clinically infected site using a medium with nutrients solidified by agar
Specific antibody detection in the patient is also utilised but is of limited value because of the general similarity between bacteria