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SEMESTER 2 EXAMS > CLINICAL > Flashcards

Flashcards in CLINICAL Deck (61):
1

What constitutes a legal document

Black pen
Legible
Date
Time
Nursing entry
Signed (name, designation)
Students must be countersigned
Errors have single line
Accurate
Correct abbreviations
Correct notes

2

SOAP

Subjective data (patients POV)
Objective data (measurable)
Assessment (problem)
Plan

3

ISOBAR

Identification (you,team leader, patient)
Situation (reason for admission)
Observation (vitals)
Background (relevant history)
Assessment (current issues/problems)
Recommendations (where to from here, expected discharge date, further actions)

4

Therapeutic effect

Desired or intended effect of the drug

5

Adverse effect

Unexpected, more severe effect of the drug

6

Side effect

Secondary effect of he drug, usually predictable

7

Peak plasma level

Highest concentration of a substance in the blood

8

Pharmacokinetics

The study in which the way drugs move through the body during absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion.
(What the body does to the drug)

9

Pharmacodynamics

The effect that the drug has on the body (what the drug does to the body)

10

Cumulative effect

The increasing response to repeated doses of a drug that occurs when the rate of administration exceeds he rate of metabolism or excretion

11

Generic drug name

A drug name that isn't protected by a trademark and usually describes the chemical structure of the drug

12

Chemical drug name

The name by which a chemist knows a drug, describes the constituents of the drug precisely

13

Trade drug name

Name given to a drug by the manufacturer

14

Absorption

The process by which a drug passed onto the blood stream

15

Metabolism

The process by which the body breaks down and converts medications into active substances

16

Excretion

The process by which a drug is eliminated from the body

17

Distribution

The transportation of a drug from its site of absorption to its site of action

18

S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S9
S10

2-pharmacy med
3-pharmacist only med
4-prescription only med
5-caution
6-poison
9-prohibited substance
10-such danger to health as warrant prohibition of sale, supply and use

19

What to do if you make a medication error

Check your person
Notify RN
Document

20

The routes of enteral medication administration

Oral
Sublingual
Buccal
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
Nasogastric tube
Inhalation
Per vaginal
Per rectal
Skin

21

What mess can be administered via PEG and NG

Liquid mess
Dissolvable meds
Meds that are not enteric coated
Meds that are not slow/moderate release

22

BD
TDS
QID
MANE
NOCTE
POST PRANDIAL
PRE PRANDIAL

BD - twice a day
TDS-three times a day
QID-four times a day
Mane- morning
NOCTE- night
OD- once daily
Post PRANDIAL- after food
Pre PRANDIAL-before food

23

7 points for a valid medication order

Right person
Right drug
Right dose
Right date/time
Right frequency
Doctor signature
Right route

24

6 rights of medication administration

Right person
Right dose
Right time
Right documentation
Right medication
Right route

25

4 extra rights

Right to refuse
Right education
Right reason
Right response

26

Fluid volume deficit

Not enough fluid

27

Hypovolemia

Dehydration

28

Isotonic

Loss of water and electrolytes

Water in equal proportions

29

Hypertonic

Loss of more water than electrolytes

30

Hypotonic

Loss of more electrolytes than water

31

Hypervolemia

Fluid overload

32

Third spacing

When fluid shifts from the vascular space to an area that is not ready accessible

33

Clinical signs of FVD

Tachycardia
Hypotension
Lethargy
Dry mucous membrane
Poor skin turgor

34

Clinical signs of FVE

Tachycardia
Hypertension
Cough;crackles;SOB
Distended jugular vein
Restlessness

35

Clinical signs of third spacing

Tachycardia
Hypotension
Cough;crackles SOB
Peripheral oedema

36

Isotonic solutions

NaCl 0.9
Hartmanns

37

Hypotonic solutions

NaCl 0.45%

38

Hypertonic solutions

5% dext
0.9% NaCl
3% NaCl

39

Extra cellular fluid (ECF)

Plasma; interstitial fluid and lymph/transcellular fluid

Electrolytes; bicarbonate; sodium; chloride

Plasma and interstitial fluid have the same electrolytes but plasma is a protein rich fluid and interstitial fluid contains little or no protein

40

Intercellular fluid (ICF)

Found within cells
Potassium and magnesium

41

Who is at risk of fluid imbalance?

Infants - they cannot express thirst or seek fluids; they have immature kidneys, cannot concentrate urine as well; larger total body surface area which increases insensible losses through skin and respirations

Elderly- decrease in thirst sensation; decrease in the kidneys, ability to concentrate urine; decrease in response to hormones that regulate fluid and electrolytes; increased use of diuretics

42

Oedema

Increased capillary hydrostatic pressures to due FVE

43

Assessing oedema and interventions

1+ barely detectable
2+ 2-4mm
3+ 5-7mm
Interventions
Elevate limb
Mobilise

44

Normal urine output

0.5 ml/kg/hr

45

How often do you monitor PIVC?

How often do you change PIVC?

Why do we prime an IV?

Every hour

Every 48-72 hours

Prevents air embolism

46

What do you asses for an IVT?

Correct fluid
Infusing rate
Iv line
PIVC - insertion date, what it looks like

47

Infiltration

Signs and symptoms

Nursing action

When Iv fluids leak into the surround tissues

Painful, feels right, swollen, cool to touch

Stop infusion, notify RN, remove IVC, document

48

Phlebitis

Signs and symptoms

Nursing action

Inflammation of the walls of the vein

Painful, reddened area, warm to touch

Stop infusion; notify RN; remove IVC; document

49

RENIN ANGIOTENSIN ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM

Dehydration occurs
Decrease in BP sensed by the kidneys
Renin is secreted by the kidney
Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II
Adrenal cortex is simulation to release aldosterone and vasoconstrict blood vessels =increased BP
Aldosterone acts on kidneys to increase sodium reabsorption
Urine volume decreases

50

Assessing level of consciousness is done by

Eye response
Verbal response
Motor response

51

The reticular activating system

Responsible for maintaining consciousness
Function of the brain stem
When the patient opens their eyes when you their name, it indicated their RAS is functioning

52

Awareness

The ability to perceive environmental stimuli and respond appropriately though thought and action

53

Obtundation

Arousable with stimulation, verbal responses limited to 1-2 words, can follow simple commands, otherwise appears drowsy
Responds to painful stimuli appropriately

54

Stupor

Lies quietly with minimum spontaneous movement; generally unresponsive except to vigorous and repeated stimuli; incomprehensible sounds; responded appropriately to painful stimuli

55

CNIII oculamotor nerve
VI abducens
IV trochlear

Position of eyelid, pupil size, shape, reactivity, gaze, consensual reflex)

Controls outward ocular movement

Controls inward movement of the eyes

56

Nystagmus

Involuntary movement of the eye

57

Diplopia

Double vision

58

Aniscoria

Unequal pupils, normal in 17% of population to the eyes due to exposure to light

59

Photophobia

Experience of pain or discomfort to the eyes due to exposure to light

60

Consensual reflex

When a torch is shone into one eye, the contralateral pupil also constricts (NORMAL)

61

Dysphobia

Difficulty putting words together of difficulty comprehending speech, reading, writing