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Flashcards in Bodoff Deck (39)
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1

Traditional VaR capital allocation and drawback

(Bodoff)

firm holds enough capital to pay for a catastrophically bad scenario (ex: 99th percentile loss event)

not concerned about losses < or > that scenario (only allocates capital to LOB contributing to the scenario)

2

Traditional TVaR capital allocation and drawback

(Bodoff)

firm holds enough capital to pay for the average loss event that is at least as bad as the VaR scenario

only allocates capital to LOB contributing to losses above the VaR scenario

3

Common criticism of tail-based capital allocation methods

(Bodoff)

ignore loss scenarios below the tail threshold

4

Problematic tail-based capital allocation methods (3)

(Bodoff)

1. CoVaR
2. alternative CoVaR
3. CoTVaR

5

CoVaR capital allocation method

(Bodoff)

allocates capital based on each event's contribution to the VaR scenario (Co-Var)

6

Alternative CoVaR capital allocation method

(Bodoff)

allocates capital to each event >= VaR in proportion to event probability

event capital(i) = capital * prob(i) / sum of prob(i) for all losses >= VaR loss

7

CoTVaR capital allocation method

(Bodoff)

allocates capital to each event >=VaR in proportion to the probability * loss for the event

event capital(i) = capital * (Loss(i) * prob(i) / sum of Loss(i) * prob(i) for all losses >= VaR loss)

8

Framework for Bodoff's percentile layer method for capital allocation

(Bodoff)

hold sufficient capital even for the 99th percentile loss instead of holding enough capital only for the 99th percentile loss

>> means there is sufficient capital to cover losses at lower percentiles as well as the 99th percentile loss

9

Percentile layer of capital (alpha, alpha + j)

(Bodoff)

percentile layer of capital(alpha, alpha + j) = required capital at percentile alpha + j - required capital at percentile alpha

10

Conditional exceedance probability (CEP)

(Bodoff)

CEP(i) = Pr(event i) / Pr(all events penetrating the layer)

11

Percentile layer method for capital allocation

(Bodoff)

for each capital layer, spread the capital for the layer across only those events penetrating the layer based on CEPs

sum up allocated capital across all layer to get the total allocated capital (AC(i)) where i = loss event i

12

Spreading allocated capital across LOB or perils

(Bodoff)

sub-allocate capital in proportion to LOB or peril loss

13

Capital allocation proportionality using the percentile layer method (3)

(Bodoff)

produces capital allocations that are NOT proportional to:
1. avg loss
2. probability of occurrence
3. stand-alone VaR

14

Lee diagram

(Bodoff)

plots all possible loss amounts on the y-axis and all possible loss events (sorted smallest to largest) on the x-axis

15

Capital layers in a lee diagram

(Bodoff)

difference in adjacent loss scenarios

16

Reasons loss events in upper capital layers receive a larger % of capital allocation compared to lower layers (2)

(Bodoff)

1. upper layers are penetrated by fewer loss events (capital is divided amongst a smaller number of events)
2. layers of capital are wider b/c the layers tend to widen as losses increase

17

Horizontal procedure for capital allocation using continuous loss functions

(Bodoff)

allocates each layer of capital to all loss events penetrating the layer (then aggregates across all capital layers)

integral from 0 to VaR(99%) integral from y to infinity of f(x) / (1 - F(y)) dx dy

where x = loss and y = capital

18

Vertical procedure for capital allocation using continuous loss functions

(Bodoff)

allocates each loss event to all layers that it penetrates (then aggregates across all loss events)

integral from lowest possible x to infinity integral from 0 to min(x, VaR(99%)) f(x) / (1 - F(y)) dy dx

where x = loss and y = capital

19

Allocated capital under the percentile layer method depends on (3)

(Bodoff)

1. probability of occurrence = f(x)
2. severity of the loss event (layers of capital penetrated)
3. loss event's inability to share it's required capital with other loss events (extent loss is dissimilar to other loss events)

20

Allocated capital for loss amt x (AC(x))

(Bodoff)

AC(x) = f(x) * integral from 0 to min(x, VaR(99%)) of 1 / (1 - F(y)) dy

21

d/dx (AC(x))

(Bodoff)

d/dx(AC(x)) = [f(x) / (1 - F(x))] + f'(x) * integral from 0 to x of 1 / (1 - F(y)) dy

second term = 0 with discrete simulations

22

d/dx (AC(x)) reveals that as loss amount (x) increases, 2 factors simultaneously affect allocated capital

(Bodoff)

1. higher loss amounts lead to more allocated capital b/c those loss amounts pierce more layers of capital
2. loss events piercing lower layers of capital receive lower allocations because larger loss amounts have lower exceedance probabilities

23

Total cost of a loss event, given the event - ignoring premium contributions to capital (additive form)

(Bodoff)

total cost given loss event = loss amount + cost of capital

total cost given loss event = x + r * AC(x) / f(x)

where r = required ROC

24

Cost of capital (not conditional on loss event)

(Bodoff)

cost of capital = r * AC(x)

where r = required ROC

25

Disutility

(Bodoff)

"pain" given a particular loss event = conditional cost of capital

26

Total cost of a loss event, given the event - ignoring premium contributions to capital (multiplicative form)

(Bodoff)

total cost given loss event = x * [ 1 + r * (1 / x) * AC(x) / f(x)]

r = required ROC

27

Allocated capital for loss amount, x, under an exponential distribution (AC(x))

(Bodoff)

AC(x) = 1 - exp(-x / theta) for x < VaR

28

Total cost of a loss event, given the event under an exponential distribution - ignoring premium contributions to capital

(Bodoff)

total cost given loss event = x + r * theta * (exp(x / theta) - 1)

r = required ROC

29

Difference between CoTVaR and the percentile layer method for capital allocation

(Bodoff)

CoTVaR allocates most of the capital to perils contributing to the most severe events

percentile layer method allocates capital to all loss events, recognizing capital will be needed for more likely, but less severe events

30

Difference between Mango's capital consumption and XTVaR methods and the percentile layer method for capital allocation

(Bodoff)

Mango's capital consumption and XTVaR allocate capital proportionally based on conditional probabilities, which can result in insufficient allocations to severe, unlikely events

percentile layer method allocates more capital to severe, unlikely events