Body and its internal environment Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > Body and its internal environment > Flashcards

Flashcards in Body and its internal environment Deck (26):
1

Nucleus

Contains DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) on chromosomes

2

Endoplasmic Reticulum

'Rough’ ER synthesises proteins, ‘smooth’ ER synthesises lipids

3

Golgi body

Protein modification and packaging into vesicles for secretion

4

Mitochondria

ATP production/synthesis (so liver and muscles have more) contains DNA

5

Lysosome

Contains enzymes, breakdown/recycle unwanted chemicals and proteins/food

6

Secretory granules (vesicles)

Contains a product to be released into circulation eg. Insulin into the blood, granules bind to the plasma membrane and contents released by exocytosis

7

Simple squamous:

Flat, 1 layer thick
Important for exchange or gases/nutrients
Eg. Alveoli in the lungs

8

Stratified squamous:

Flat, many layers
Protection and barrier (communication)
Eg. Oral cavity

9

Keratinised stratified squamous:

Flat, many layers (Keratin)
Protection and barrier (waterproofing)
Eg. Skin, hair

10

Simple Cuboidal:

Cuboidal shape, 1 layer
Secretion and absorption
Eg. Salivary glands, pancreas

11

Simple Columnar:

Tall cells, with basely located nuclei, 1 layer
Absorption and secretion
Eg. GI tract (gall bladder)

12

Modified Simple Columnar:

Tall cells, basely located nuclei, 1 layer
Modifications eg. Microvilli
Absorption and secretion
Eg. Enterocytes in GI tract

13

Complex Columnar:

Appear stratified
Modifications eg. Cilia, goblet cells
Mucociliary escalator
Eg. Trachea, large respiratory airways

14

How does the body maintain fluid balance?

ADH
Not enough water:
- A message is sent to the anterior pituitary gland causing it to release ADH
- travels into bloodstream to the kidneys affecting the tubules, causing more water to be reabsorbed into the blood
- Produces a smaller volume of more concentrated urine = level of water in the blood increases back to normal
Too much water:
- The release of ADH from the anterior pituitary gland is slowed down/stopped
- Kidneys therefore will not save as much water
- A large volume of dilute urine is produced = level of water in the blood falls back to normal

15

Define the term electrolytes

Ions that can conduct electricity, and can move across the cell membrane by osmosis if water follows

16

Hypokalaemia effects

Abnormal ECG, bradycardia, muscle cramps, decreased tone in muscles

17

Hyperkalaemia effects

Irritability, muscle weakness, extreme cardiac arrest

18

Hypercalcaemia effects

Fatigue, weakness

19

Hypocalcaemia effects

Muscle cramps, neuromuscular excitability

20

Active transport

Against concentration, requires ATP

21

Facilitated diffusion

Down concentration gradient, with carrier, does not require energy

22

Role of Sodium?

Osmotic balance
Body fluid volume
Nerve conduction
Acid-base balance

23

Role of Calcium?

Bone formation
Muscle contraction
Blood clotting
Nerve impulses

24

Role of Chloride?

Essential for gastric acid production
Balancing ion

25

Role of Phosphate?

Acid-base balance
Bone formation
Metabolism of carbs
Found in DNA

26

Role of Potassium?

Nerve conduction - higher concentration inside the cell
Carbohydrat