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Flashcards in Skeletal system Deck (22):
1

What are the functions of the skeletal system?

Structural support
Protects organs
Provides leverage for movement
Stores calcium
Produces blood cells

2

Describe the bones structure (matrix)

Organic component: OSTEOID
- made up of collagen and protein complexes
- strong, flexible but easily compressed
Inorganic component: HYDROXYAPATITE
- deposition of mineral salts mainly Ca+ phosphate and Ca+ carbonate
- hard, relatively inflexible and quite brittle
Combination of 2 = strength and flexibility, resistance to shattering

3

Name and describe the 4 types of bone cell

1. OsteoBLASTS - produce new bone, secrete osteoid, responsible for mineral deposition
2. OsteoCYTES - mature bone cell, maintain the matrix
3. OsteoCLASTS - remove minerals from the matrix, bone remodelling
4. Osteogenic stem cells - found in periosteum and endosteum, develop into osteoblasts

4

Describe bone structure (tissue)

Compact bone - located on the surface of the bone
Cancellous/spongy bone - located on the interior of the bone, less heavy than compact, spaces between trabeculae contain bone marrow

5

Name and describe the different types of bone marrow

Found in spaces between trabeculae of spongy bone, and medullary cavities of long bones
> Red bone marrow - myeloid tissue (haempoietic)
> Yellow bone marrow - fatty tissue, doesn't produce blood (can transform back in severe anaemia)

6

Name the 4 classifications of bones by shape

1. Long bones are longer than they are wide, act as levers eg. femur, phalanges, metatarsals
2. Short bones are nearly equal in length & width, glide across each other eg. carpals & tarsals
3. Flat bones protect organs and serve muscle attachment eg. sternum, scapula, pelvic and cranial bones
4. Irregular bones serve for muscle attachment eg. vertebrae

7

Name the 2 methods of bone formation

Intramembranous ossification
Endochondral ossification

8

Intramembranous ossification

Occurs in flat bones and clavicles
3 stages:
- mesenchymal cells secrete osteoid, deposition of Ca+ salts leads to calcification, mesenchymal cells can differentiate into osteoblasts
- blood vessels grow in area to supply nutrients and oxygen
- cancellous bone develops first, remodelling occurs and compact bone develops

9

Endochondral ossification

1. Cartilage model laid down
2. Outer cells differentiate into osteoblasts, produce thin outer collar of bone, blood supply develops
3. Cells in diaphysis differentiate to osteoblasts, primary ossification centres
4. Osteoclasts erode centre of diaphysis = marrow cavity
5. Secondary ossification centres develop in epiphyses and epiphyseal cartilage replaced by bone
6. Think plate of cartilage remains at the metaphysis = epiphyseal plate

10

Describe bone growth

Osteoblasts invade the cartilage from the shaft side and replace it with bone
As long as the speed of cartilage growth excedes the rate of osteoblast activity the bone will continue to grow in length
Puberty = increase in sex, growth and thyroid hormones which increases stimulation of bone growth, osteoblast activity catches up with cartilage formation = bone growth halts

11

Describe bone remodelling

Ca+ salts are deposited and reabsorbed as required
Bone thickened = increases strength in areas of physical stress
Old bone renewed and injured bone replaced

12

Name the 6 types of fractures

Bones fracture (break) if subjected to extreme loads, sudden impacts or stresses from unusual directions
Can be compound (open) or simple (closed)
1. Greenstick
2. Comminuted
3. Linear
4. Transverse
5. Oblique
6. Spiral

13

What is the process of a bone healing?

1. Haematoma formation
2. Area invaded by capillaries, fibroblasts, macrophages, osteoclasts and osteogenic cells, soft callus forms
3. Soft callus hardened by mineral deposition
4. Remodelling of osteoclasts
Takes up to 7 weeks, requires a good blood supply and freedom from infection

14

Name the factors that delay healing

Deficient blood supply
Tissue fragments between bone ends
Poor alignment of bone ends
Infection
System illness
Malnutrition
Ageing
Drugs eg. corticosteroids

15

What is a joint?

An area where 2 bones meet

16

Functional classification of joints

Synarthrosis: little or no movement eg. suture
Amphiartosis: slightly moveable eg. intervertebral discs
Diarthroses: freely moveable eg hip

17

Structural classification of joints

Cartilaginous: bones held together by cartilage eg. intervertebral discs
Fibrous: bones held together by collagenous fibres eg. skull sutures
Synovial: bones separated by a joint cavoty and enclosed in a fibrous capsule eg. hip

18

Classification of synovial joints

Ball and socket eg. shoulder - allows flexion & extension, abduction & adduction, circumduction and rotation
Hinge eg. elbow - flexion and extension
Gliding eg. sternoclavicular sliding
Pivot eg. atlantoaxial - rotation
Ellipsoid eg. radiocarpal - flexion & extension, abduction & adduction
Saddle eg. thumb - flexion & extension, abduction & adduction

19

How many bones are in the axial skeleton?

80 bones

20

Which bones are in the axial skeleton?

The Skull - provides a protective cavity for the brain: mandible (lower face), maxilla (upper lip), frontal, parietal (side of head), occipital (back of head), temporal
Vertebral column - supports the body and protects the spinal chord
Ribs - protects the contents of the thorax, important in ventilation:
> 7 true ribs
> 3 false ribs
> 2 floater ribs
Sternum - 3 parts:
> manubrium
> body
> xiphisternum

21

How many bones are in the appendicular skeleton?

126 bones

22

Which bones are in the appendicular skeleton?

Pectoral girdle -
- attaches the upper limb to the body
- consists of scapulae and clavicles
- Responsible for facilitating movements of the arm
Upper limb -
- Humerus: bone of the arm
- Radius & ulna: bones of the forearm, ulna lies medial to the radius
- Bones of the hand eg. phalanges, metacarpals and carpals
Pelvic girdle -
- composed of sacrum and 2 os coxae
- each os coxae is formed from 3 fused bones (ilium, ischium and pubis) which fuse at the acetabulum
Lower limb -
- femur: bone of the thigh
- tibia & fibula: bones of the leg, tibia lies medial to the fibula
- patella: knee cap
Bones of the foot: phalanges, metatarsals and tarsals