Flashcards in Revision Q's Deck (174):
The cell organelle which is the site responsible for protein synthesis is...
Negative feedback control systems are involved in the control of:
Haemolysis may occur when a blood cell is placed into a...
In negative feedback control systems involved in homeostasis...
The effector tissue is often a muscle or gland
Lack a nucleus
Extracellular fluid differs from intracellular fluid, in adults, in that its...
Volume is smaller
Simple cuboidal epithelium is found...
In the thyroid gland
Usually involves continuous activity of sensory receptors
Relative to the elbow, the wrist is...
The plasma membrane is freely permeable to:
The three basic FIBRE types in connective tissue are...
Collagen, reticular and elastic
Collagen is NOT present in the matrix of...
During the depolarization of the nerve cell plasma membrane...
Sodium channels open and sodium ions moves in to the cell
Name an endocrine gland
The anterior pituitary gland...
Which hormone is responsible for the reabsorption of water only in the nephron?
The cell membrane is...
More negatively charged than the exterior
Regarding the autonomic nervous system...
The main neurotransmitter substance released at target organs of the parasympathetic nerves is acetylcholine
Activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) will cause...
An increase in pupil diameter
Thyroxine is an example of...
An amine hormone
In the sympathetic nervous system...
The pre-ganglionic nerve fibres leave the spinal chord at thoraco-lumbar levels
Increase their discharge rate when there is an increase in arterial blood pressure
On the electrocardiogram (ECG)
There is normally no wave associated with atrial repolarisation
Cardiac output is determined by...
Heart rate x stroke volume
How is Mean Cell Haemoglobin (MCH) calculated?
Haemoglobin concentration (g/l) of whole blood / red cell count
An increase in mean arterial blood pressure may result from...
An increase in cardiac output
What hormone stimulates red blood cell production and where is it released from?
Erythropoetin, is released in response to hypoxia from the kidneys
Maintaining a stable internal environment
Chemical synapses in the nervous system...
Release neurotransmitter from pre-synaptic vesicles
Where is the primary sensory cortex located?
Which bone cells maintain the matrix?
Which bone cells develop into osteoblasts?
Osteogenic stem cells
Which type of bone marrow can transfer back to produce RBC and why?
Yellow bone marrow, in the case of severe anaemia
Why does growth of bones halt in puberty?
During puberty, there is an increase in sex, growth and thyroid hormones that increase osteoblast formation and catch up with cartilage formation
Pressure in alveoli is less than atmospheric pressure
The proximal tubule of the nephron...
Reabsorbs more sodium ions in the glomerular filtrate
The wall of the trachea possesses...
C shaped hyaline cartilage rings
Formation of HCO3 in systemic blood...
Result in formation of H+
Inhibits aldosterone release
Makes the collecting ducts more permeable to water
What are the 2 functional parts of the somatic NS?
Motor and sensory
Striated muscle is found in the...
Are sensitive to chemical substances released by damaged cells/tissue
Can cause respiratory depression
What is not a function of the skeleton?
NSAIDS are usually associated with...
The shoulder joint...
Permits flexion, extension, adduction and abduction, circumduction and rotation
Secrete osteoid, responsible for mineral deposition
Is effective against mild pain
Is under voluntary control
Hydrochloric acid in the stomach is secreted from the...
The layers of the digestive tract in the correct order, from the interior to outward are...
Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
A hormone that increases blood glucose levels
What is an example of a micronutrients?
Which hormone stimulates gastric motility and secretion?
Which class of lipoproteins removes the cholesterol from the blood and returns it to liver for elimination?
High density lipoproteins
Which is the mucous membrane that changes during menstrual cycle in response to hormones:...
Which cell is diploid?
Levels increase substantially after ovulation
What is not an example of a non-specific defense?
The following pathway describes lymphatic flow ...
Capillaries, larger vessels, lymph nodes, larger vessels, thoracic duct, left subclavian vein, systemic circulation
Which cell is involved in the humoral response?
What is the role of the immune system?
To distinguish the host from everything foreign
To protect against infections
Battle against pathogens
What is innate immunity?
The natural non-specific defence mechanisms that come into play soon after an antigen has entered the body
What are the 3 cardinal characteristics of adaptive immune responses?
Memory, specificity, discrimination between self and non-self
What is the function of T-killer cells?
Kill virus infected cells
Which hormone stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids?
T3 and T4
Which hormone is responsible for lowering blood calcium levels?
Which hormone is responsible for lowering bone calcium levels?
What is a ganglion?
A group of nerve cell bodies in the PNS
In neurotransmission, at the NMJ which two substances are involved?
Acetylcholine and calcium
What are myofibrils?
Long, protein rich structure, thin = actin, thick = myosin
What 2 elements are necessary for muscle contraction?
ATP and calcium
What destroys acetylcholine?
The somatic PNS is...
Which bone forms part of the hard palate?
During the cough reflex...
Intra-abdominal pressure rises
Air inhaled through the mouth would be
Dirtier than air inhaled through the nose
What is a correct role of the plasma membrane?
Defines cell boundries
Anti-cancer drugs are likely to aim for which part of a cell?
What is the role of cholesterol in the cell?
Maintain fluidity of the cell
Oxytocin release in pregnancy is controlled by which feedback mechanism?
What are the components of a negative feedback mechanism?
Receptor, coordinator, effector
What is the correct definition of osmolality?
Number of osmoles/kg of water
Water is being seen to leave a cell causing the cell to shrivel. What state is the cell in?
Muscle cramps are caused by a deficiency of what electrolyte?
The parasympathetic nervous system is part of which main nervous system?
Balance, posture and muscle tone is maintained by which part of the brain?
Most spinal nerves are found in which section of the spine?
Which substance is found in the subarachnoid space?
Motor neuron disease is caused by the destruction of what cells?
Schwann cells, insulate and protect the nerve cells by creating a myelin sheath
Nervous signals from the receptors on the skin are carried to the spinal cord by which nerve?
Which neurotransmitter produced from glutamate that functions as an inhibitory molecule?
What is the substance that acts as a supportive network for the neurones?
A structure containing a number of cell bodies, typically linked by synapses is known as what?
When a threshold potential is reached, there will be an influx of which electrolyte?
An action potential will only be achieved if a threshold voltage is reached. What is this response known as?
All or nothing
Sodium potassium pumps maintain a cells resting potential. Three of which electrolyte are pumped out by this pump?
Which is the process by which neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft?
Name a hormone that promotes growth
Human growth hormone
Name a hormone that maintains metabolism
Human growth hormone
Name a hormone that stimulates cortisol release
Name an essential hormone in pubertal development
Follicle stimulating hormone
Name a hormone that controls production of sex steroids
Hormones are chemically classed into what 3 groups?
Peptides, amines and steroids
What is the correct name for a ductless gland that secretes hormones directly into the blood?
What is the name given to a hormone that stimulates the secretion of another hormone?
Which organ is responsible for the conversion of T4 to T3?
A lack of vitamin D will result in a poor uptake of which electrolyte from food?
Hormones that increase plasma Ca2+ concentrations are released from where?
What is the name of the negative feedback process responsible for triggering the production of red blood cells?
What causes haemorrhagic anaemia?
Sufficient red blood cell loss caused by major blood loss
A red blood cell with a mean corpuscular volume below 80FL is known as what?
A parasitic infection or allergy such as asthma, is usually accompanied by a rise in which type of white blood cell?
Which step in blood clotting comes first?
Which antigen would be found on the red blood cells of somebody who is Rhesus positive?
A clot is removed when fibrinolysis occurs. This process breaks down fibrin to soluble products that can be removed by phagocytosis. Which enzyme initiates this process?
Which of these processes will occur in a hypoglycaemic patient?
What is the name of the sac surrounding the heart?
Which vein empties oxygen rich blood from the lungs into the left atrium of the heart?
Which of these words best describes cardiac muscle?
On an ECG, the QRS complex represents which part of a heart contraction?
What is the name of the conducting fibres that cause ventricular contraction?
Process that allows blood to be pumped into the ventricle from the top of the heart
Responsible for P wave on an ECG trace
Responsible for T wave on ECG
The electrical activity that pumps blood out of the heart around the body
What is the correct term for the volume of blood pumped per minute by each ventricle of the heart?
What is the correct formula for calculating blood pressure?
Cardiac output x total peripheral resistance
What part of the respiratory tract is responsible for providing a resonating chamber for speech sounds?
How many lobes are present in the right lung?
What is the volume measurement for air inhaled or exhaled in a single resting breath?
Resting tidal volume
By what method is carbon dioxide most abundantly transported by?
As bicarbonate (HCO3-_ ion in plasma
The partial pressure of O2 and percent O2 saturation curve will shift to the right in what circumstance?
Higher partial pressure of CO2
Respiratory acidosis occurs when the pH of the blood is below what value?
Which part of the urinary system is responsible for the production of vitamin D?
Which part of the nephron is responsible for reducing the pressure of blood flow?
Which hormone is responsible for increasing blood volume by stimulating sodium reabsorption in the nephron?
Which endogenous substance stimulates a release of ADH?
Which part of the digestive tract has both endocrine and exocrine functions?
What substance is responsible for breaking down carbohydrates into disaccharides and trisaccahrides?
What is the role of the gall bladder?
Store and concentrate bile
A deficiency of which nutrient is likely to cause loose, poorly formed stool?
What type of lipoproteins will transport cholesterol to the vessels?
Low density lipoproteins
Which vitamins is water soluble?
Which of the statements below is true for vitamins?
Cannot be obtained from foods
Which type of muscle is small in length and made of spindle shaped cells with tapered ends?
76. What are the characteristics of type IIB muscle fibres?
Fast contraction, high force but low endurance
A tendon jerk reflex involves what components?
Spinal chord and muscle
What defence is part of the innate immune response?
Which of the blow is a type of T cell?
Plasma cells manufacture and export large amounts of what immunity related substance?
What process is facilitated by antibodies?
What infection leads to the depletion of mature T lymphocytes?
What is the role of trypsin in the GI tract?
Released by pancreatic duct, activates pro-peptidases in the duodenum
What is the role of CCK in the GI tract?
Involved in bile release, stimulates contraction of gall bladder
What is the role of parietal cells in the stomach?
Secrete HCl, contain carbonic anhydrase
What is the role of saliva?
Initiates the digestion of carbohydrates
Role of HCl in GI tract?
Kills microbes eaten by food
By what process do oogenia turn to oocytes?
What is ovulation and when does it occur?
The release of an ovum, on day 14 of menstrual cycle
What is the name given to a mature follicle in the female reproductive system?
What do the remains of the ovulated follicle become?
What are the 3 layers of the uterus called?
Where is the primary sensory cortex located?
When a cell is bathed in a hypotonic solution...
Water moves into the cell
The antibodies found in the blood of a person with group O positive are...
anti-A and anti-B
During quiet inspiration...
Air enters the lungs until intrapulmonary pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure
Low density lipoproteins found in the plasma...
Transport cholesterol from liver to the tissues
How is child birth an example of positive feedback?
1. head of foetus pushes against cervix
2. nerve impulses from cervix transmitted to the brain
3. brain stimulates pituitary gland to release oxytocin
4. oxytocin carried in bloodstream to uterus
5. oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions and pushed foetus towards cervix
What does proximal mean?
Directional term that means nearer to the point of attachment
What does lateral mean?
Structure further from the midline of the body
What is the only moveable bone of the skull?