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Flashcards in Revision Q's Deck (174):
1

The cell organelle which is the site responsible for protein synthesis is...

Ribosomes

2

Negative feedback control systems are involved in the control of:

Body temperature

3

Haemolysis may occur when a blood cell is placed into a...

Hypotonic solution

4

In negative feedback control systems involved in homeostasis...

The effector tissue is often a muscle or gland

5

Prokaryotic cells...

Lack a nucleus

6

Extracellular fluid differs from intracellular fluid, in adults, in that its...

Volume is smaller

7

Simple cuboidal epithelium is found...

In the thyroid gland

8

Homeostasis...

Usually involves continuous activity of sensory receptors

9

Relative to the elbow, the wrist is...

Distal

10

The plasma membrane is freely permeable to:

Steroid hormones

11

The three basic FIBRE types in connective tissue are...

Collagen, reticular and elastic

12

Collagen is NOT present in the matrix of...

Blood

13

During the depolarization of the nerve cell plasma membrane...

Sodium channels open and sodium ions moves in to the cell

14

Name an endocrine gland

Adrenal gland

15

The anterior pituitary gland...

Seretes ACTH

16

Which hormone is responsible for the reabsorption of water only in the nephron?

ADH

17

The cell membrane is...

More negatively charged than the exterior

18

Regarding the autonomic nervous system...

The main neurotransmitter substance released at target organs of the parasympathetic nerves is acetylcholine

19

Activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) will cause...

An increase in pupil diameter

20

Thyroxine is an example of...

An amine hormone

21

In the sympathetic nervous system...

The pre-ganglionic nerve fibres leave the spinal chord at thoraco-lumbar levels

22

Arterial baroreceptors...

Increase their discharge rate when there is an increase in arterial blood pressure

23

On the electrocardiogram (ECG)

There is normally no wave associated with atrial repolarisation

24

Cardiac output is determined by...

Heart rate x stroke volume

25

How is Mean Cell Haemoglobin (MCH) calculated?

Haemoglobin concentration (g/l) of whole blood / red cell count

26

An increase in mean arterial blood pressure may result from...

An increase in cardiac output

27

What hormone stimulates red blood cell production and where is it released from?

Erythropoetin, is released in response to hypoxia from the kidneys

28

Homeostasis means...

Maintaining a stable internal environment

29

Chemical synapses in the nervous system...

Release neurotransmitter from pre-synaptic vesicles

30

Where is the primary sensory cortex located?

Parietal lobe

31

Which bone cells maintain the matrix?

Osteocytes

32

Which bone cells develop into osteoblasts?

Osteogenic stem cells

33

Which type of bone marrow can transfer back to produce RBC and why?

Yellow bone marrow, in the case of severe anaemia

34

Why does growth of bones halt in puberty?

During puberty, there is an increase in sex, growth and thyroid hormones that increase osteoblast formation and catch up with cartilage formation

35

During inspiration...

Pressure in alveoli is less than atmospheric pressure

36

The proximal tubule of the nephron...

Reabsorbs more sodium ions in the glomerular filtrate

37

The wall of the trachea possesses...

C shaped hyaline cartilage rings

38

Formation of HCO3 in systemic blood...

Result in formation of H+

39

Renin release...

Inhibits aldosterone release

40

ADH...

Makes the collecting ducts more permeable to water

41

What are the 2 functional parts of the somatic NS?

Motor and sensory

42

Striated muscle is found in the...

Diaphragm

43

Nociceptors...

Are sensitive to chemical substances released by damaged cells/tissue

44

Analgesic morphine...

Can cause respiratory depression

45

What is not a function of the skeleton?

Stores ion

46

NSAIDS are usually associated with...

Constipation

47

The shoulder joint...

Permits flexion, extension, adduction and abduction, circumduction and rotation

48

Osteoblasts...

Secrete osteoid, responsible for mineral deposition

49

Aspirin...

Is effective against mild pain

50

Skeletal muscle...

Is under voluntary control

51

Hydrochloric acid in the stomach is secreted from the...

Parietal cells

52

The layers of the digestive tract in the correct order, from the interior to outward are...

Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa

53

Glucagon is...

A hormone that increases blood glucose levels

54

What is an example of a micronutrients?

Minerals

55

Which hormone stimulates gastric motility and secretion?

Gastrin

56

Which class of lipoproteins removes the cholesterol from the blood and returns it to liver for elimination?

High density lipoproteins

57

Which is the mucous membrane that changes during menstrual cycle in response to hormones:...

Endometrium

58

Which cell is diploid?

Spermatogonia

59

Progesterone...

Levels increase substantially after ovulation

60

What is not an example of a non-specific defense?

Vaccination

61

The following pathway describes lymphatic flow ...

Capillaries, larger vessels, lymph nodes, larger vessels, thoracic duct, left subclavian vein, systemic circulation

62

Which cell is involved in the humoral response?

B cells

63

What is the role of the immune system?

To distinguish the host from everything foreign
To protect against infections
Battle against pathogens

64

What is innate immunity?

The natural non-specific defence mechanisms that come into play soon after an antigen has entered the body

65

What are the 3 cardinal characteristics of adaptive immune responses?

Memory, specificity, discrimination between self and non-self

66

What is the function of T-killer cells?

Kill virus infected cells

67

Which hormone stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids?

T3 and T4

68

Which hormone is responsible for lowering blood calcium levels?

Prolactin

69

Which hormone is responsible for lowering bone calcium levels?

Calcitonin

70

What is a ganglion?

A group of nerve cell bodies in the PNS

71

In neurotransmission, at the NMJ which two substances are involved?

Acetylcholine and calcium

72

What are myofibrils?

Long, protein rich structure, thin = actin, thick = myosin

73

What 2 elements are necessary for muscle contraction?

ATP and calcium

74

What destroys acetylcholine?

Acetylcholinesterase

75

The somatic PNS is...

Voluntary

76

Which bone forms part of the hard palate?

Maxillary bone

77

During the cough reflex...

Intra-abdominal pressure rises

78

Air inhaled through the mouth would be

Dirtier than air inhaled through the nose

79

What is a correct role of the plasma membrane?

Defines cell boundries

80

Anti-cancer drugs are likely to aim for which part of a cell?

Nucleus

81

What is the role of cholesterol in the cell?

Maintain fluidity of the cell

82

Oxytocin release in pregnancy is controlled by which feedback mechanism?

Positive feedback

83

What are the components of a negative feedback mechanism?

Receptor, coordinator, effector

84

What is the correct definition of osmolality?

Number of osmoles/kg of water

85

Water is being seen to leave a cell causing the cell to shrivel. What state is the cell in?

Hypertonic

86

Muscle cramps are caused by a deficiency of what electrolyte?

Calcium

87

The parasympathetic nervous system is part of which main nervous system?

Peripheral

88

Balance, posture and muscle tone is maintained by which part of the brain?

Cerebellum

89

Most spinal nerves are found in which section of the spine?

Thoracic

90

Which substance is found in the subarachnoid space?

CSF

91

Motor neuron disease is caused by the destruction of what cells?

Schwann cells, insulate and protect the nerve cells by creating a myelin sheath

92

Nervous signals from the receptors on the skin are carried to the spinal cord by which nerve?

Afferent nerves

93

Which neurotransmitter produced from glutamate that functions as an inhibitory molecule?

GABA

94

What is the substance that acts as a supportive network for the neurones?

Glia

95

A structure containing a number of cell bodies, typically linked by synapses is known as what?

Ganglion

96

When a threshold potential is reached, there will be an influx of which electrolyte?

Sodium

97

An action potential will only be achieved if a threshold voltage is reached. What is this response known as?

All or nothing

98

Sodium potassium pumps maintain a cells resting potential. Three of which electrolyte are pumped out by this pump?

Sodium

99

Which is the process by which neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft?

Exocytosis

100

Name a hormone that promotes growth

Human growth hormone

101

Name a hormone that maintains metabolism

Human growth hormone

102

Name a hormone that stimulates cortisol release

Adrenocorticotrophic hormone

103

Name an essential hormone in pubertal development

Follicle stimulating hormone

104

Name a hormone that controls production of sex steroids

LH

105

Hormones are chemically classed into what 3 groups?

Peptides, amines and steroids

106

What is the correct name for a ductless gland that secretes hormones directly into the blood?

Endocrine

107

What is the name given to a hormone that stimulates the secretion of another hormone?

Trophic hormone

108

Which organ is responsible for the conversion of T4 to T3?

Kidney

109

A lack of vitamin D will result in a poor uptake of which electrolyte from food?

Calcium

110

Hormones that increase plasma Ca2+ concentrations are released from where?

Parathyroid gland

111

What is the name of the negative feedback process responsible for triggering the production of red blood cells?

Hypoxia

112

What causes haemorrhagic anaemia?

Sufficient red blood cell loss caused by major blood loss

113

A red blood cell with a mean corpuscular volume below 80FL is known as what?

Microcytic

114

A parasitic infection or allergy such as asthma, is usually accompanied by a rise in which type of white blood cell?

Eosinophils

115

Which step in blood clotting comes first?

Vasoconstriction

116

Which antigen would be found on the red blood cells of somebody who is Rhesus positive?

D

117

A clot is removed when fibrinolysis occurs. This process breaks down fibrin to soluble products that can be removed by phagocytosis. Which enzyme initiates this process?

Plasmin

118

Which of these processes will occur in a hypoglycaemic patient?

Gluconeogenesis

119

What is the name of the sac surrounding the heart?

Pericardium

120

Which vein empties oxygen rich blood from the lungs into the left atrium of the heart?

Pulmonary vein

121

Which of these words best describes cardiac muscle?

Autorhythmic

122

On an ECG, the QRS complex represents which part of a heart contraction?

Ventricular depolarisation

123

What is the name of the conducting fibres that cause ventricular contraction?

Purkinje fibres

124

Process that allows blood to be pumped into the ventricle from the top of the heart

Atrial depolarisation

125

Responsible for P wave on an ECG trace

Atrial depolarisation

126

Responsible for T wave on ECG

Ventricular repolarisation

127

The electrical activity that pumps blood out of the heart around the body

Ventricular depolarisation

128

What is the correct term for the volume of blood pumped per minute by each ventricle of the heart?

Cardiac output

129

What is the correct formula for calculating blood pressure?

Cardiac output x total peripheral resistance

130

What part of the respiratory tract is responsible for providing a resonating chamber for speech sounds?

Pharynx

131

How many lobes are present in the right lung?

3

132

What is the volume measurement for air inhaled or exhaled in a single resting breath?

Resting tidal volume

133

By what method is carbon dioxide most abundantly transported by?

As bicarbonate (HCO3-_ ion in plasma

134

The partial pressure of O2 and percent O2 saturation curve will shift to the right in what circumstance?

Higher partial pressure of CO2

135

Respiratory acidosis occurs when the pH of the blood is below what value?

7.35

136

Which part of the urinary system is responsible for the production of vitamin D?

Kidney

137

Which part of the nephron is responsible for reducing the pressure of blood flow?

Glomerulus

138

Which hormone is responsible for increasing blood volume by stimulating sodium reabsorption in the nephron?

Aldosterone

139

Which endogenous substance stimulates a release of ADH?

Angiotensin II

140

Which part of the digestive tract has both endocrine and exocrine functions?

Pancreas

141

What substance is responsible for breaking down carbohydrates into disaccharides and trisaccahrides?

Pancreatic amylase

142

What is the role of the gall bladder?

Store and concentrate bile

143

A deficiency of which nutrient is likely to cause loose, poorly formed stool?

Fibre

144

What type of lipoproteins will transport cholesterol to the vessels?

Low density lipoproteins

145

Which vitamins is water soluble?

Vitamin C

146

Which of the statements below is true for vitamins?

Cannot be obtained from foods

147

Which type of muscle is small in length and made of spindle shaped cells with tapered ends?

Smooth muscle

148

76. What are the characteristics of type IIB muscle fibres?

Fast contraction, high force but low endurance

149

A tendon jerk reflex involves what components?

Spinal chord and muscle

150

What defence is part of the innate immune response?

Mucus

151

Which of the blow is a type of T cell?

CD4

152

Plasma cells manufacture and export large amounts of what immunity related substance?

Antibodies

153

What process is facilitated by antibodies?

Phagocytosis

154

What infection leads to the depletion of mature T lymphocytes?

HIV

155

What is the role of trypsin in the GI tract?

Released by pancreatic duct, activates pro-peptidases in the duodenum

156

What is the role of CCK in the GI tract?

Involved in bile release, stimulates contraction of gall bladder

157

What is the role of parietal cells in the stomach?

Secrete HCl, contain carbonic anhydrase

158

What is the role of saliva?

Initiates the digestion of carbohydrates

159

Role of HCl in GI tract?

Kills microbes eaten by food

160

By what process do oogenia turn to oocytes?

Meiosis

161

What is ovulation and when does it occur?

The release of an ovum, on day 14 of menstrual cycle

162

What is the name given to a mature follicle in the female reproductive system?

Graafian follicle

163

What do the remains of the ovulated follicle become?

Corpus luteum

164

What are the 3 layers of the uterus called?

Perimetrium
Myometrium
Endometrium

165

Where is the primary sensory cortex located?

Parietal lobe

166

When a cell is bathed in a hypotonic solution...

Water moves into the cell

167

The antibodies found in the blood of a person with group O positive are...

anti-A and anti-B

168

During quiet inspiration...

Air enters the lungs until intrapulmonary pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure

169

Low density lipoproteins found in the plasma...

Transport cholesterol from liver to the tissues

170

How is child birth an example of positive feedback?

1. head of foetus pushes against cervix
2. nerve impulses from cervix transmitted to the brain
3. brain stimulates pituitary gland to release oxytocin
4. oxytocin carried in bloodstream to uterus
5. oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions and pushed foetus towards cervix

171

What does proximal mean?

Directional term that means nearer to the point of attachment

172

What does lateral mean?

Structure further from the midline of the body

173

What is the only moveable bone of the skull?

Mandible

174

What are the 3 bones called in the middle ear?

Malleus, incus and stapes