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Flashcards in Respiratory system Deck (22):
1

Anatomy of right lung

Wider and shorter than left
3 lobes - superior, middle, inferior
2 fissures - oblique, horizontal

2

Anatomy of left lung

Narrower and longer than right
2 lobes - superior and inferior
1 fissure - oblique

3

Pleural cavity

Visceral pleura - covers lung
Parietal pleura - lines chest wall
Hilum
> reduces friction
creates a pressure gradient to assist ventilation
isolates lungs

4

Upper respiratory tract

Nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx

5

Lower respiratory tract

Trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli

6

Conducting zone

nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
- filters, warns and moistens air
- transmits air to and from lungs

7

Respiratory zone

respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli
- site of gas exchange

8

Nasal cavity

Warms, cleanses and humidifies air
Detects odours
Resonating chamber that modifies voice
Conchae
Meati
Paranasal air sinuses

9

Pharynx

Extends from nose to larynx
Passageway for airway and food
Warms and humidifies air
Resonating chamber for speech sounds

10

Larynx

9 pieces of cartilage
Maintains an open airway
Switching mechanism:
- swallowing - larynx in pulled upwards, epiglottis moves down to cover laryngeal inlet
- cough reflex
Changes tension in vocal chords

11

Trachea (+oesophagus)

Cartilage rings
Smooth muscle
Respiratory mucosa

12

Muco-ciliary escalator

Cilia in upper respiratory tract move mucus down towards pharynx
Cilia in lower respiratory tract move mucus up towards pharynx

13

Bronchial tree

Trachea - primary bronchi - secondary bronchi - tertiary bronchi - bronchioles - terminal bronchioles

14

Difference between bronchus and bronchioles

Bronchus have cartilage in their walls

15

Alveoli

Type I alveolar cell = squamous epithelium
Type II alveolar cells = septal cells
- gaseous exchange

16

Blood supply to lungs

Pulmonary arteries carry blood to be oxygenated
Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from lungs to the heart
Bronchial arteries supply lung tissue with blood, arise from the aorta and branch with bronchi (don't supply alveoli)

17

Intrapulmonary pressure: inspiration

1. Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract
2. rib cage moves up and outwards
3. thoracic cavity volume increases
4. intrapulmonary volume increases
5. intrapulmonary pressure decreases
6. air enters lungs down pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure = atmospheric pressure

18

Intrapulmonary pressure: expiration

1. diaphragm and external intercostals relax
2. rib cage moves in and down
3. thoracic cavity volume decreases
4. intrapulmonary volume decreases
5. intrapulmonary pressure increases
6. intrapulmonary pressure > atmospheric pressure = air leaves lungs down a pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure is 0

19

Pulmonary compliance

Ease with which the lungs expand
Healthy lungs are stretchy = high compliance
Compliance is reduced by:
- scar tissue
- difficulty in expanding lungs
- blockages
- low levels of surfactant

20

Partial pressure

The pressure exerted by each gas.
Directly proportional to its percentage in the total gas mixture

21

Henry's law

"amount of gas that dissolves in water is determined by its solubility in water and its partial pressure in air”
solubility in plasma = carbon dioxide > oxygen >>nitrogen

22

Detection systems

Peripheral chemoreceptors
> aortic bodies
> carotid bodies (main O2 sensors)
Central chemoreceptors
- monitor pH of CSF