# Body Fluids Flashcards

1
Q

Ions make up …% of solutes

A

95%

2
Q

Formula to calculate osmotic pressure

A

P = r × C × R × T

• P: Osmotic pressure*
• r: reflection coefficient*
• C: Conc. of dissolved substance*
• R: General gas constant*
• T: Temperature*
3
Q

Describe the Reflection coefficient

A
• If a substance cannot diffuse accross the membrane
• Coefficient value = 1
• If a substance can pass freely
• Coefficient value = 0
4
Q

Describe Molarity

A

​​mol/liter

• Anelectrolites:
• 1 mol dissolved substance in 1 litre
• Has an osmotic pressure of 2.27 MPa
• Molarity of body fluids:
• Unit: mmol/l
• Osmotic pressure measured in kPa
5
Q

Osmolarity

A

1 osmol/l = 6×1023 dissolved substance / liter

6
Q

Molality

A

mol/kg

• No. mol of substance in 1kg solvent
• Correlated with freezing point depression
7
Q

Calculate molality

A
• Electrolites:
• Conc. x dissociation constant
• (1 mol NaCl - 3.72°C)
• Anelectrolites:
• Conc. related to freezing point
8
Q

Define Osmolality

A

Measures of the body’s electrolyte-water balance

9
Q

Freezing point depression for water

A

1.86 °C

10
Q

Freezing point depression for blood plasma

A

0.56°C

11
Q

Calculate osmolality:

• For dilute anelectrolite solutions
A

mosmol/kg = mmol/kg

12
Q

Calculate osmolality:

• For complete dissociation
A

moslmol/kg = mmol/kg x no. dissociated ions

(E.g NaCl has 2 dissociated ions, Na+ + Cl-)

13
Q

Calculate osmolality:

• For concentrated solutions
• (Biological fluids)
A

mosmol/kg = mmol/kg x g

• g: osmotic coefficient*
• Plasma NaCl - g=0.926*
14
Q

Oncotic/colloidosmotic pressure

A

Pressure maintained by proteins and colloid particles

15
Q

Give the anelectrolite concentrations of the blood plasma

A
• Glucose:
• 5 mmol/l (Monogastric)
• 3 mmol/l (Ruminants)
• 10 mmol/l (Birds)
• Urea: 3-10 mmol/l
• NPN 15-25mmol/l

NPN = ‘Non-protein nitrogen’

16
Q

Give the concentrations of the cations in blood plasma

A
• Na+ = 140 mmol/l
• K+ = 4 mmol/l
• Mg2+ = 1.5 mmol/l
• Ca2+ = 1.25 mmol/l
17
Q

Give the concentrations of the anions in blood plasma

A
• Cl- = 110 mmol/l
• HCO3- = 27 mmol/l
• Protein = 17 mmol/l
• Phosphate = 2 mmol/l
• Sulphate = 1 mmol/l
• Organic acids = 4 mmol/l
18
Q

Value of osmolality of blood plasma calculated based on total electrolyte concentration

A

280 mmol/kg

19
Q

Value of osmolality of blood plasma calculated by freezing point depression

A

300 mmol/kg

20
Q

Calculate non-ionic osmolality

A

300 mmol/kg - 280 mmol/kg

(Freezing point osmolality - total electrolyte osmolality)

= 20 mmol/kg

21
Q

Give the concentration of plasma proteins

A

60-80 g/l

22
Q

Give the oncotic pressure (Osmotic pressure of plasma proteins)

A

2.7-3.4 kPa

23
Q

Give the molarity of plasma proteins

A

1.2-1.5 mmol/l

24
Q

How are plasma proteins quanitfied?

A

Kjeldahl method

25
Q
• Formula to calculate protein concentration
• Approximate value
A

Oncotic pressure / Osmotic pressure of 1 mol/l

Approximately 2.5 mmol/l

26
Q
A

100 µmol/l

27
Q
A

50 (50-200) µmol/l

28
Q
A

< 60-200 µmol/l

29
Q
A

25%

30
Q
A

50%

31
Q
A

25%

32
Q
A

3-10 mmol/l

33
Q
A

~ 5 mmol/l

34
Q

Give the methods of fractionation

A
• Paperelectrophoresis
• Geleelectrophoresis
• Immunoelectrophoresis
• HPLC
• Ultracentrifuging
• Gel-filtration
• Affinity chromatography
35
Q

Paperelectrophoresis

A
• Only fibrinogen and albumin can be seperated
• Other proteins can be found in globulin fraction
• a mixture of hundreds of different proteins
• Can be used to identify over 300 different proteins
36
Q

Gelelectrophoresis

A
37
Q

Ultracentrifuging

A
• High G developed in an ultracentrifuge vacuum
• Macromolecules separated according to sedimentation constants
38
Q

Ion exchange chromatography

A

Seperates proteins on the basis of their charge

39
Q

Gel-filtration

A
• Seperation with polysaccharide beads (dextran)
• Protein with small molecular weight can infiltrate the beads
• Proteins therefore spends more time in the beads
• Bigger molecules are washed away faster than the smaller ones
40
Q

Affinity chromatography

A
• Beads covalently bind a specific antibody
• Antibody is produced against the protein to the bead
• Proteins will be selected from a mixture by the antibodies
• The rest of the proteins will be washed away
41
Q

Immune electrophoresis

A
• Antibody distributed in a gel
• Gel poured on a sheet of glass
• Electric field applied
• Precipitation arcs with the antigen left behind
42
Q

HPLC

A

High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

• High pressure perfusion
• Divides proteins in a solid phase column
43
Q
A
• 60-70 kDa
• 55%
• 45 g/l
44
Q
A
• 45-200 kDa
• 6%
• 4 g/l
45
Q
A
• 50-800 kDa
• 8%
• 6 g/l
46
Q
A
• 90-350 kDa
• 11%
• 8 g/l
47
Q
A
• 340 kDa
• 5%
• 3-6 g/l
48
Q
A
• 150-1000 kDa
• 20%
• 15 g/l
49
Q

List the functions of plasma proteins

A
• Maintain oncotic pressure
• Transport functions
• albumin
• globulin
• Blood sedimentation
• Buffer action
• Blood clotting
• Immunity
• As the role of an enzyme
• General protein metabolism
50
Q

Oncotic pressure:

• Responsible by
• Purpose
A
• Albumin responsible for 80% of pressure
• Keeps water in circulation
51
Q

What does albumin transport?

A
• Fatty acids
• Bilirubin
• Hormones
• Vitamins
• Metal ions
• Calcium, copper, zinc
52
Q

What do globulins transport?

A

Transferrin: Iron

Haptoglobin: Hemaglobin

Transcortin: Corticoids

TBG: Thyroxin

Transcobalamin: Vitamin B12

53
Q

Lipoprotein

A

Globulin

Lipids bind to proteins in the plasma or are closed into a protein envelope

Density depends on the fat/protein ratio

54
Q

Give the varieties of lipoprotein

A
• VLDL: Very low density
• IDL: Intermediate density
• LDL: Low density
• HDL: High density
55
Q

Give the diameter of Chylomicron

A

500 nm

56
Q

What percentage of HDL is protein?

A

50%

57
Q

What percentage of LDL is Vitamin C Ester?

A

40%

58
Q

Give the process of blood sedimentation from the point of infection

A
1. Acute phase proteins and immunoglobulins displace albumin from RBC surface
2. Total charge of RBC surface decreases
3. Less repulsion, faster sedimentation
4. Inflammation
5. Appearance of immunoglobulins
59
Q

Give the increase of acute phase proteins during inflammation

A
• Complement proteins: 1.5x
• Fibrinogen: 3x
• Haptoglobin: 3x
• C-reactive proteins: 100-3000x
• Serum amyloid-A: 100-3000x
60
Q

Give the importance of plasma proteins when acting as a buffer

A

Responsible for:

• 7% buffer capacity of the blood
• 15% buffer capacity of the plasma

Not as important as hemoglobin, which is responsible for 35% buffer capactiy of blood

61
Q

Give the importance of plasma proteins during blood clotting

A
• All coagulation factors are plasma proteins (except Ca2+)
• These circulate inactively in the intravasal compartment
• Anticoagulation and fibrinolysis factors are plasma proteins too
62
Q

Plasma proteins in immunity

A
• Immunoglobulins
• Complement proteins
• Signal proteins
63
Q

Functions of plasma enzymes

A
• Hormone inactivation
• Activated blood coagulation factors: Enzymes
• Enzymes of: liver, kidney, muscle and heart
• Hold diagnostic importance
64
Q

Give the factors of general protein metabolism

A

Plasma proteins change constantly

Regeneration capacity of 25% per day

(plasmapheresis)

10 g/l decrease in conc. means 1kg decrease in the total protein content of the body

65
Q

Where are plasma proteins synthesised?

A

The liver

Except for:

• Gamma globulins
• HDL and VLDL
• IC enzymes
66
Q

Where are gamma globulins produced?

A

Plasma cells

67
Q

Where are HDL’s and VLDL’s produced?

A

Intestinal epithelium

68
Q

Where are IC enzymes produced?

A

In their respective organs

69
Q

Give the pathological change of hypoproteinemia

A

Starvation

70
Q

Give the pathological change of hyperproteinemia

A

Kidney disease

71
Q

Give the pathological change of dysproteinemia

A

Ratio changes of e.g Albumin/globulin

72
Q

Give the pathological change of paraproteinemia

A

Appearance of pathological proteins

E.g Tumour Bence-jones proteins

73
Q

Give the pathological change of defect-proteinemia

A

Lack of some fractions

Genetic E.g fibrinogen

74
Q

What are the two important factors determining the formation of ISF?

A
• Transport through the capillary wall
• Forces determining transport
75
Q

Which contents of plasma can pass freely thorugh the capillary wall?

A
• Water
• Electrolites
• Crystalloids
76
Q

How can protein move from the Intravascular space to the interstitial space?

A

Pynocytosis and Exocytosis

77
Q

How does the ISF become concentrated with proteins?

A
• ISF fluid moves back to the capillary
• Proteins cannot get back
• Protein concentration increases

Plasma/ISF electrolite conc. ratio doesn’t change much

78
Q

Describe the transport of colloids in relation to capillaries

A

Capillary wall acts as a barrier

Little transport occurs in continuous capillaries with help of specific carrier systems.

79
Q

Which capillaries are permeable for proteins?

A

Sinusoids in the liver

80
Q

How can molecules pass the capillary wall?

A
• By fenestration
• Interendothelialy
• Trancellularly
• By cytosis
81
Q

The the forces determining transport and therefore composition of the interstitial fluid is determined by…

A
• Diffusion
• Osmotic conditions
• Electric forces
• Hydrostatic forces
82
Q

Diffusion

A
• Most substances crossing the capillary membrante are transported this way
• Particles moving without restriction continuously
83
Q

What causes water to move from the ISF to the intravasal compartment?

A

Oncotic pressure

84
Q

If movement of a component is restricted between two compartments…

A

The concentration of diffusible ions will be different in the compartments after the balance develops

85
Q

Electroneutrality

A

The total amount of anions and cations have to be equal in certain compartments

86
Q

Thermodynamic rule

A

The product of the concentrations of diffusilbe ions must be equal on both sides of the membrane

87
Q

Give the main principles of Gibbs-Donnan balance

A

Electroneutrality previals

Sum of electromotive force developed by cations and anions is 0 in the case of balance.

Balanced with the Nernst equation:

E = RT / nF × ln([Ion]inside / [Ion]outside )

88
Q

What can be derived from this formula?

A

The ratio of anion and cation concentration is the same on both sides of the membrane

89
Q

Because proteinate ions cannot pass through a dyalizing membrane, what differences can be seen between K+ and Cl- concentrations either side of a membrane?

A
90
Q

Give the distribution quotient (ISF/Plasma)

A

[K+]i / [K+]o = [Cl-]o / [Cl-]i = 1.05

91
Q

Why is the ratio of concentraion between the Intravasal compartment/interstitium smaller than Intracellular compartment/interstitium?

A

Less protein conc. difference in the IC compartment and the ISF

Compared with

More protein conc. difference in the Plasma and the ISF

92
Q

What continually moves water into the plasma?

A

Osmotic pressure

93
Q

What continuously moves water out of the plasma?

A

Hydrostatic pressure

94
Q

Which pressure is higher at the arterial end of a capillary?

• Hydrostatic pressure
• Oncotic pressure
A

Hydrostatic pressure

Results in filtration

95
Q

Which pressure is higher at the venous end of a capillary?

• Hydrostatic pressure
• Oncotic pressure
A

Oncotic Pressure

Results in resorption

96
Q

Oedema is a kind of…

A

ISF overproduction

(Local or general isoosmotic hypervolemia)

97
Q

How can oedema be tested?

A

Pressing the oedematous area with the hand leaves an impression

98
Q

What causes effective filtration pressure?

A

Oncotic and hydrostatic forces

99
Q

The difference between oncotic and hydrostatic forces is greater:

• On the arterial end?
• On the venous end?
A

On the arterial end

100
Q

What is the net filtration rate?

A

3-4ml/minute/100kg body mass

101
Q

The excess volume from net filtration is removed by…

A

Lymph vessels

102
Q

Oedema is the result of…

A
• Overfiltration
• Decreased resorption
103
Q

Give the concentrations of the anions in the interstitial fluid

A

Cl<span>-</span>: 114mmol/l

HCO3-: 28mmol/l

104
Q

Give the concentrations of the cations in the interstitial fluid

A

Na+: 135mmol/l

K+: 4mmol/l

Mg2+: 1.5mmol/l

Ca2+: 1.25mmol/l

105
Q

Interstitial drainage and protein resorption is responsible by

A

The lymphatic system

106
Q

Intracellular fluid

A
• High conc. of IC substances
• Volume and osmolarity - kept in a narrow range
• Selective permeability
• Stable ion, crystalloid and protein content
107
Q

Describe selective permeability of the cell membrane

A
• Membrane is permeable only for certain ions and substances
• Regulated transport requiring energy
108
Q

How does osmolarity inside cells increase?

A

Proteins attract ions into the cell

109
Q

Give strategies to stop cells from bursting from high water content

A
• Some protozoons excrete water actively
• Plants have a strong cell wall
• Mammalian cells use ion transport (using energy)