Bone Tumors 1 /2- Mahoney Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bone Tumors 1 /2- Mahoney Deck (56)
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1

What is still the single best radiologic test to help diagnose bone lesions, including tumors

The plain radiograph

2

Soft tissue mass adjacent to a bone tumor is considered ____

malignant (until proven otherwise)

3

Margins

Narrow: Values

0.1-1.0 mm

- tumor and surrounding normal bone are touching, and you see it surrounded by either a sclerotic or lytic margin

4

Margins

Wide: Values

2-10 mm

- but in between the two there is an area that is indistinct that looks like it might be partially damaged

5

Margins
_____ - margin may be several centimeters or it may be impossible to measure the margin

Poorly defined:

6

-lesions with a distinct margin, whether or not it is sclerotic

geographic lesions

7

growth is more rapid, there may not be enough time to retreat orderly, and the margin becomes ill-defined

moth-eaten” appearance-usually suggests malignancy

8

Ill-defined pattern of lucency caused by many, small, irregular holes in the bone

permeative” pattern, usually associated with aggressive infection or malignancy

9

Moth eating and permeative are all ______

Malignant

10

If the lesion grows in fits and starts, periosteum may have time to lay down thin shell of calcified new bone before the lesion starts another growth spurt-leads to concentric shells of new bone over the lesion

lamellated or “onion-skin”

- associated with Ewings sarcoma

11

Rapid growth of bone --> appearance-periosteum has no time to lay down bone, but Sharpey’s fibers become stretched out perpendicular to the bone, and then ossify-lesion is malignant until proven otherwise

“sun-burst” or “hair-on-end”

12

only the edges of the raised periosteum will ossify-this little bit of ossification forms a small angle with the surface of the bone, but not a complete triangle

Codman’s “triangle

13

Often caused by the tumor breaking out of cortex into the soft tissue

Codman’s “triangle

14

The x-ray sign that is least likely to occur with an aggressive bone tumor is:

Codman’s triangle
Sunburst appearance
Lamellated periosteum
Geographic bone matrix
Permeative bone matrix

Geographic

15

Diffuse Periosteal Reaction

Venous stasis

Can cause a psedu osteomyelitis

16

The substance in bone produced by osteoblasts and chondroblasts

Matrix

17

______matrix tends to be dense and confluent (“cloudy”)

Osseous

18

_______ matrix tends to produce small punctate or swirled area of calcification

Chondroid

19

This bone tumor has a ground glass appearance on x-ray:

Non-ossifying fibroma

20

1. osteochondroma
2. solitary enchondroma
3. chondroblastoma
4. chondrosarcoma

Cartilage-forming tumors (“chondro”)

21

1. Osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma
2. Osteogenic sarcoma

Bone-forming tumors (“osteo”)

22

1. Osteogenic sarcoma
2. Chondrosarcoma
3. Fibrosarcoma
4. Ewing’s sarcoma
5. Metastatic carcinoma

Malignant tumors

23

Vast majority of bone tumors are going to be in the _____ type

Lytic

24

FOGMACHINES stands for?

F fibrous dysplasia
O osteoid osteoma/osteoblastoma
G giant cell tumor
M metastasis, myeloma
A aneurysmal bone cyst
C chondroblastoma, chondromyxoid fibroma
H hyperparathyroidism, hemangioma
I infection
N non-ossifying fibroma
E eosinophilic granuloma, enchondroma
S solitary bone cyst, sarcoidosis


Solitary lytic lesions of bone

25

(“long lytic lesion in a long bone”)

Fibrous Dysplasia

Non-ossifying Fibroma --> looks alike

26

Small <2cm
Occurs in younger

- dervided from bone tissue surrounded by sclerotic tissue

lesion (“hurts like a ‘b’ and tough to see”)

What can help with the pain?

Osteoid osteoma

Night pain relieved by ASA

27

At the end of a long fast, teens have a blast”

Benign lesion of bone composed of osteoid tissue intermixed with woven bone in a vascular connective tissue stroma

most common tumor in teens at the ends of long bones)

Osteblastoma

28

Aggressive tumor composed of well vascularized stroma with oval tumor cells and multinucleated tumor giant cells

Giant Cell Tumor

- May metastasize to lungs or transform to fibrosarcoma or osteogenic sarcoma

29

Most probable cause of osteolytic metastases in a child is _______

neuroblastoma

In an adult male, CA of lung
In an adult female, CA of breast
CA of kidney and thyroid

30

_________ is most common primary malignant tumor of bone in the body

Myeloma