Flashcards in Book 3: Part 3 WW1 On The Home Front Deck (39):
Evidence of things DORA enforced?
-government could take any land it wanted to
-daylight saving (changing the clocks) was introduced to increase work hours
Evidence for people supporting the war at the start of the war?
200,000 people joined in the first week
What is DORA?
Defence of the Realm Act
8th August 1914
Gave government control over more aspects of people's lives
What were the the 6 main issues with the preparation of Britain going to war?
Business as usual
What were the problems with Britain carrying on with "business as usual"?
People need to focus on war.
People were still playing football and getting drunk
What was Lloyd George's response to business as usual?
Lloyd George restricted pub opening hours and cancelled bank holidays
What were the problems in Britain in regard to food production? (3 thangs)
Britain was dependant on foreign food imports: 40% meat, 80% wheat.
Food shortages occurred in 1916
For example: Britain was down to 9 weeks' supply of wheat
4 days of sugar
What was Lloyd George's solution to food shortages in Britain? (3 things)
He persuaded farmers to turn pasture land to food
Voluntary rationing -1917
Compulsory rationing -1918
Why was it important for Lloyd George to control "business as usual"
If people were carrying on as usual in terms of eating, there would not be enough food.
If people were gathering in large groups, it gave German's places to bomb
Why was it important to control food production?
Food is needed to keep the country going and working. Food was running low so rationing was needed
What were the problems with mining in Britain?
The factories were not controlled by the government so the government didn't benefit
What were the solutions to mining in Britain?
Government took control of the industry so it would run for the benefit of war
Why was it important for Britain in the war to control the mines?
Coal was vital.
It was needed to power steam engines.
Miners were not conscripted and they were needed for important work
What were the problems with railways in Britain?
Trains were needed to move troops around
Cargo had to be sent from factories to supply troops
What were the solutions to railways in Britain?
Government took control and ran a single unified system
Railway companies were guaranteed the same profit levels that they had in 1913
What was the importance of controlling the railways in Britain?
Without them, troops would have a lack of supplies because they wouldn't have them transported.
Troops would not be able to fight abroad
What were the problems with shipping in Britain? (2 evidence)
German U-boats sank $3.7 million tons of British shipping
1 in 4 British merchant ships were sank
What were the solutions to shipping in Britain?
Ministry of shipping imposed a convoy system which meant
Merchant ships sailed with battle ships
What was the importance of controlling shipping in Britain?
Britain needed the merchant ships for food.
Britain would be stronger if they had more resources
What were the problems with munitions in Britain?
There was a shortages of munitions in 1915
For example, one third of the 6 million shells ordered had been delivered
What were the government's solutions to the munitions crisis?
Set up ministry of munitions
The state controlled more than 200,000 factories
Women were allowed to work in factories
What were the dangers of munitions factories?(4 things)
High risk of explosions
They were military targets
It turned women yellow and caused rashes meaning women were called "the canaries"
TNT was poisonous (109 workers died from TNT poisoning)
What was the importance of controlling munitions in the war?
Britain could not fight without them
How much did women achieve in the munitions crisis?
By 1917, 76 million shells had been produced by women
Was Britain organised for war?
But passing DORA meant that they could solve issues during war by taking control
However some of these were not solved until much later.
I.e. Food crisis (1916) was not solved until compulsory rationing (1918) which suggests Britain were not equipped to deal with war as it took them 2 years to solve an issue in war
Why was propaganda used in the war?
To keep moral high and to influence the people to do what the government wanted
Who opposed the war?
Conscientious objectors and 50 MPs voted against
How many people refused to enlist when conscription was passed?
16,000 out of 8 million refused to enlist
Examples of censorship during the war? (4 mark)
HMS Audacious was sunk in October 1914 and wasn't reported
"Tribunal"- pacifist newspaper was shut down
Government examined 38,000 articles and 300,000 private telegrams
Evidence propaganda was effective during the war (3 points)
John Bull - nationalistic newspaper was selling 2 million copies by 1918
240 war films were produced included the famous "battle of the Somme"
This was shown in nearly half of British cinemas
What was the battle of the Somme?
France 1916 1st July
60,000 dead/ injured on day 1
Biggest military loss in British history
Examples of threats at home? (2)
Dec 1914 - Scarborough
119 people dead
Shelled by German battleships
Jan 1915 - 57 bomber raids
- killed 564 people
Why were Britain optimistic at the start of the war?
They thought it would be over by Christmas
How did the government help women in munition factories?
Set up the worker's canteen which was to keep women healthy
This was to get the best national efficiency
Jan 1916: all single men 18-41
May 1916: all men of military age
Why was conscription introduced?
Drop in volunteers
- people thought the war would be over by Christmas
How many people joined war in the first week?
How many people joined war in August 1914?