Book 3: Part 3 WW1 On The Home Front Flashcards Preview

History gcse > Book 3: Part 3 WW1 On The Home Front > Flashcards

Flashcards in Book 3: Part 3 WW1 On The Home Front Deck (39):
1

Evidence of things DORA enforced?

-government could take any land it wanted to
-daylight saving (changing the clocks) was introduced to increase work hours

2

Evidence for people supporting the war at the start of the war?

200,000 people joined in the first week

3

What is DORA?

Defence of the Realm Act

8th August 1914

Gave government control over more aspects of people's lives

4

What were the the 6 main issues with the preparation of Britain going to war?

Business as usual
Food problems
Mining
Railways
Shipping
Munitions

5

What were the problems with Britain carrying on with "business as usual"?

People need to focus on war.
People were still playing football and getting drunk

6

What was Lloyd George's response to business as usual?

Lloyd George restricted pub opening hours and cancelled bank holidays

7

What were the problems in Britain in regard to food production? (3 thangs)

Britain was dependant on foreign food imports: 40% meat, 80% wheat.

Food shortages occurred in 1916

For example: Britain was down to 9 weeks' supply of wheat
4 days of sugar

8

What was Lloyd George's solution to food shortages in Britain? (3 things)

He persuaded farmers to turn pasture land to food

Voluntary rationing -1917
Compulsory rationing -1918

9

Why was it important for Lloyd George to control "business as usual"

If people were carrying on as usual in terms of eating, there would not be enough food.

If people were gathering in large groups, it gave German's places to bomb

10

Why was it important to control food production?

Food is needed to keep the country going and working. Food was running low so rationing was needed

11

What were the problems with mining in Britain?

The factories were not controlled by the government so the government didn't benefit

12

What were the solutions to mining in Britain?

Government took control of the industry so it would run for the benefit of war

13

Why was it important for Britain in the war to control the mines?

Coal was vital.
It was needed to power steam engines.
Miners were not conscripted and they were needed for important work

14

What were the problems with railways in Britain?

Trains were needed to move troops around

Cargo had to be sent from factories to supply troops

15

What were the solutions to railways in Britain?

Government took control and ran a single unified system
Railway companies were guaranteed the same profit levels that they had in 1913

16

What was the importance of controlling the railways in Britain?

Without them, troops would have a lack of supplies because they wouldn't have them transported.

Troops would not be able to fight abroad

17

What were the problems with shipping in Britain? (2 evidence)

German U-boats sank $3.7 million tons of British shipping

1 in 4 British merchant ships were sank

18

What were the solutions to shipping in Britain?

Ministry of shipping imposed a convoy system which meant

Merchant ships sailed with battle ships

19

What was the importance of controlling shipping in Britain?

Britain needed the merchant ships for food.

Britain would be stronger if they had more resources

20

What were the problems with munitions in Britain?

There was a shortages of munitions in 1915

For example, one third of the 6 million shells ordered had been delivered

21

What were the government's solutions to the munitions crisis?

Set up ministry of munitions

The state controlled more than 200,000 factories

Women were allowed to work in factories

22

What were the dangers of munitions factories?(4 things)

High risk of explosions

They were military targets

It turned women yellow and caused rashes meaning women were called "the canaries"

TNT was poisonous (109 workers died from TNT poisoning)

23

What was the importance of controlling munitions in the war?

Britain could not fight without them

24

How much did women achieve in the munitions crisis?

By 1917, 76 million shells had been produced by women

25

Was Britain organised for war?

No
But passing DORA meant that they could solve issues during war by taking control
I.e. Mining...
However some of these were not solved until much later.
I.e. Food crisis (1916) was not solved until compulsory rationing (1918) which suggests Britain were not equipped to deal with war as it took them 2 years to solve an issue in war

26

Why was propaganda used in the war?

To keep moral high and to influence the people to do what the government wanted

27

Who opposed the war?

Conscientious objectors and 50 MPs voted against

28

How many people refused to enlist when conscription was passed?

16,000 out of 8 million refused to enlist

29

Examples of censorship during the war? (4 mark)

HMS Audacious was sunk in October 1914 and wasn't reported
"Tribunal"- pacifist newspaper was shut down
1916-
Government examined 38,000 articles and 300,000 private telegrams

30

Evidence propaganda was effective during the war (3 points)

John Bull - nationalistic newspaper was selling 2 million copies by 1918

240 war films were produced included the famous "battle of the Somme"

This was shown in nearly half of British cinemas

31

What was the battle of the Somme?

France 1916 1st July
60,000 dead/ injured on day 1
Biggest military loss in British history

32

Examples of threats at home? (2)

Dec 1914 - Scarborough
119 people dead
Shelled by German battleships

Jan 1915 - 57 bomber raids
- killed 564 people

33

Why were Britain optimistic at the start of the war?

They thought it would be over by Christmas

34

How did the government help women in munition factories?

Set up the worker's canteen which was to keep women healthy

This was to get the best national efficiency

35

Conscription facts?

Jan 1916: all single men 18-41

May 1916: all men of military age

36

Why was conscription introduced?

Drop in volunteers
- people thought the war would be over by Christmas

37

How many people joined war in the first week?

200,000

38

How many people joined war in August 1914?

250,000

39

How many people joined war in September 1914?

500,000