Flashcards in Book 4: Part 1 Cold War Deck (23):
What things strengthened relations between east and west? ( 2 things )
They had a common enemy of Hitler in the war
They had a wartime alliance
What is the Cold War? ( 4 mark )
A war with no direct action
Fought between the USA and USSR between 1945-1975
Events included the Cuban missile crisis and Vietnam war
There was a different in ideologies between the USA and USSR
Which things weakened relations between East and West? ( 2 )
Before the war, allies followed a policy of appeasement which Stalin did not trust because they thought they were trying to help Hitler
The USSR had been communist since 1918, so the hate for communism had built up
What was agreed at the Yalta Conference?
- Germany and Berlin would be split into four zones
- Poland's borders were moved so Stalin could get more land
- free elections would be held but would be under a soviet "sphere of influence" in Eastern Europe
- Stalin joined the League of Nations
Why were relationships different at Potsdam from Yalta? (3)
Harry Truman was president now and he was very anti communist
America had tested an atomic bomb
Stalin had gone against agreements at Yalta and taken control of Eastern Europe
What was agreed at the Potsdam conference?
To bring nazi war criminals to trial
Hold free elections in Poland - although Stalin disagreed
What is meant by the term "iron curtain" ( 4 )
An ideological divide between east and west
Created by winston Churchill in a speech direct to Truman to prove his loyalty
Thought to be the fault of Stalin for creating this divide
Said this because he went against at agreements made at Yalta
What was the effect of Truman testing the atomic bomb?
He told Stalin at the start of Potsdam
This made Stalin feel vulnerable and broke down relations
What was Cominform?
Coordinated work of communist parties in Eastern Europe which gave Stalin power to replace leaders with loyal ones to him and brief them of what he wanted
In what ways did Stalin expand into Eastern Europe ? (3)
Attacking influential non communists
Praying on the poor after the war
What happened in Greece?
After Germany retreated there were two rival groups wanting power
Communist VS monarchists
Churchill sent in troops in 1945 to support the monarchists
USSR said it was a threat to peace
When Britain could not pay anymore money and would have to withdraw troops, America paid
Monarchists won but had a weak government
What happened in Czechoslovakia?
Communists took over
A pro American leader was found dead out of his window
It was said he jumped but America suspected he was pushed
Marshall plan was introduced straight after this in retaliation
How did America react to Eastern Europe?
Introduce the Truman doctrine and the Marshall plan
What was the Truman Doctrine?
USA would follow a policy of containment which meant they would try to stop the spread of communism rather than try to change countries capitalist
They would send money and equipment to countries threatened by communist takeover
What was the Marshall plan?
The plan to help countries in need as Marshall believed communism succeeded when countries were poor
He asked congress for 17 billion
They refused at first because they were concerned about interfering in foreign affairs but then gave in after the Marshall plan was introduced
What did Stalin think of the Marshall plan?
He forbade any of the Eastern Europe states from applying for it
Was the Marshall plan entirely selfless?
It was also in self interest as it involved creating new American markets
Why did Stalin blockade Berlin? ( 4 )
Stalin was not invited to the London conference with America, France and Britain in 1947
They wanted to force allies out of West Berlin
The currency in West Berlin was changing so more people would move to the west. This happened the day before the blockade (short term)
America Britain and France announced they were making a new country
What were the responses to the blockade?
Allies airlifted supplies into West Berlin ( coal and food )
Stalin could not shoot down planes as it would start another war
Evidence for what the allies did in response to the blockade?
1200 flights a day
Cost over $100 million
Consequences of blockade?
11 months later Stalin had to back down and let west Germany be capitalist
In 1949 the allies agreed east Germany and east Berlin could be under a "sphere of influence"
What alliance did America make at the end of the Cold War?
North Atlantic treaty organisation
Attack against one is an attack against all
USA Britain France Italy Portugal