Book 4: Part 1 Cold War Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Book 4: Part 1 Cold War Deck (23):
1

What things strengthened relations between east and west? ( 2 things )

They had a common enemy of Hitler in the war

They had a wartime alliance

2

What is the Cold War? ( 4 mark )

A war with no direct action

Fought between the USA and USSR between 1945-1975

Events included the Cuban missile crisis and Vietnam war

There was a different in ideologies between the USA and USSR

3

Which things weakened relations between East and West? ( 2 )

Before the war, allies followed a policy of appeasement which Stalin did not trust because they thought they were trying to help Hitler

The USSR had been communist since 1918, so the hate for communism had built up

4

What was agreed at the Yalta Conference?

- Germany and Berlin would be split into four zones
- Poland's borders were moved so Stalin could get more land
- free elections would be held but would be under a soviet "sphere of influence" in Eastern Europe
- Stalin joined the League of Nations

5

Why were relationships different at Potsdam from Yalta? (3)

Harry Truman was president now and he was very anti communist

America had tested an atomic bomb

Stalin had gone against agreements at Yalta and taken control of Eastern Europe

6

What was agreed at the Potsdam conference?

To bring nazi war criminals to trial

Hold free elections in Poland - although Stalin disagreed

7

What is meant by the term "iron curtain" ( 4 )

An ideological divide between east and west

Created by winston Churchill in a speech direct to Truman to prove his loyalty

Thought to be the fault of Stalin for creating this divide

Said this because he went against at agreements made at Yalta

8

What was the effect of Truman testing the atomic bomb?

He told Stalin at the start of Potsdam

This made Stalin feel vulnerable and broke down relations

9

What was Cominform?

Coordinated work of communist parties in Eastern Europe which gave Stalin power to replace leaders with loyal ones to him and brief them of what he wanted

10

In what ways did Stalin expand into Eastern Europe ? (3)

Winning elections

Attacking influential non communists

Praying on the poor after the war

11

What happened in Greece?

After Germany retreated there were two rival groups wanting power

Communist VS monarchists

Churchill sent in troops in 1945 to support the monarchists

USSR said it was a threat to peace

When Britain could not pay anymore money and would have to withdraw troops, America paid

Monarchists won but had a weak government

12

What happened in Czechoslovakia?

Communists took over

A pro American leader was found dead out of his window
It was said he jumped but America suspected he was pushed

Marshall plan was introduced straight after this in retaliation

13

How did America react to Eastern Europe?

Introduce the Truman doctrine and the Marshall plan

14

What was the Truman Doctrine?

USA would follow a policy of containment which meant they would try to stop the spread of communism rather than try to change countries capitalist

They would send money and equipment to countries threatened by communist takeover

15

What was the Marshall plan?

The plan to help countries in need as Marshall believed communism succeeded when countries were poor

He asked congress for 17 billion

They refused at first because they were concerned about interfering in foreign affairs but then gave in after the Marshall plan was introduced

16

What did Stalin think of the Marshall plan?

He forbade any of the Eastern Europe states from applying for it

17

Was the Marshall plan entirely selfless?

No

It was also in self interest as it involved creating new American markets

18

Why did Stalin blockade Berlin? ( 4 )

Stalin was not invited to the London conference with America, France and Britain in 1947

They wanted to force allies out of West Berlin

The currency in West Berlin was changing so more people would move to the west. This happened the day before the blockade (short term)

America Britain and France announced they were making a new country

19

What were the responses to the blockade?

Allies airlifted supplies into West Berlin ( coal and food )

Stalin could not shoot down planes as it would start another war

20

Evidence for what the allies did in response to the blockade?

1200 flights a day

Cost over $100 million

21

Consequences of blockade?

11 months later Stalin had to back down and let west Germany be capitalist

In 1949 the allies agreed east Germany and east Berlin could be under a "sphere of influence"

22

What alliance did America make at the end of the Cold War?

NATO
North Atlantic treaty organisation

Attack against one is an attack against all

USA Britain France Italy Portugal

23

What did Russia do in response to NATO?

Warsaw Pact

1953

Russia and Eastern European countries