Book 4: Part 3 Vietnam Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Book 4: Part 3 Vietnam Deck (30):

What happened in 1954?

USA prevented elections as the feared communist victory

France pulled out of Vietnam

Vietnam was divided along the 17th parallel


Who was Diem?

Corrupt anti communist leader

Elected in 1955
Overthrown in 1963

Treated peasants badly so they wanted communism


What did America do in the build up to going to war?

America first sent in advisors to fight Viet Cong - Kennedy

They then sent
11,500 troops by the end of 1962
23,000 troops by the end of 1964 - Johnson


Why did the USA go to war with Vietnam ( 4 )

To follow their policy of containment

The gulf of Tonkin

So America do not seem weak, Americans wanted a president to be tough on communism

Domino theory. To stop the spread of communism so it would not reach its neighbours

Military industrial complex
High ranking military officers wanted war to bring in more money for them so they could make more arms.
Eisenhower warned America but did not directly accuse


What was the gulf of Tonkin incident?

In August 1964, north Vietnamese open fired on US ships on the gulf of Tonkin, this triggered war


When did the USA go to war in Vietnam?

8th March 1965
3500 marines came ashore


Tactics used by the capitalists in Vietnam?


Operation rolling thunder
Chemical warfare
Search and destroy


Tactics used by the communist supporters in the Vietnam war?

Viet Cong and NVA

Hearts and minds
Booby traps
Guerilla warfare


If you get a tactics 4 marker, what do you do?

Say the three tactics and one in more detail e.g.

Operation rolling thunder
Chemical warfare such as the use of a highly toxic week killer called agent orange
Search and destroy


What was chemical warfare?

Using powerful chemical weapons

Agent orange- highly toxic weed killer
Napalm-burned through skin

This killed guerrilla fighters but also killed peasants and made people turn against America


What was search and destroy?

Helicopters descended on villages and raided them destroying Viet Cong

Did kill Viet Cong but
Many civilians were killed which made the is unpopular


What was operation rolling thunder?

Extensive bombing raids along the Ho Chi Minh Trail and military/ industrial targets

Disrupted Viet Cong supply routes but did not stop it

It cost $400,000 to kill one Viet Cong fighter


What was guerrilla warfare?

The Viet Cong did not wear uniform so America could not distinguish them

They had a 240km tunnel complex

40,000 Vietnamese right to keep it open

It was hard to defend against


What were booby traps?

Booby traps caused 11% of casualties

They were cheap and unexpected

However they could be leant to be avoided, but USA soldiers left after a year!


What were hearts and minds?

They would protect Viet Cong and share information as the US were bombing them as well


Evidence low morale and inexperience caused problems in Vietnam?

( 4 )

The average age for a soldier was 19, so this was their first war experience

Many soldiers turned to drugs, and 3% of officer deaths were caused by their troops - "fragging"

Incidents of desertion and they only had to stay for a year


Evidence Vietnam's neighbours caused problems in Vietnam

Neighbouring countries such as Cambodia and Laos were sympathetic to the Viet Cong

They were able to retreat there for ammunition and the Ho Chi Minh trail went through these countries that America could not enter.


Describe the events of my Lai ( 4 )

Charlie company went to My Lai and shot as many as 500 unarmed civilians

In 1968 but In March 1969 the coverup was revealed

Soldiers were told to explode brick homes and set fire to thatch houses

William Calley was 24 and a "reckless officer" "a kid trying to play war"


Who were the Charlie company?

Low scoring soldiers that beat, raped and killed civilians


Outcome of My Lai?

Turned Vietnamese against the US army

Turned the USA public against the army


How did the media effect/reflect the support at home?

At the start of the war
The media rarely covered bad stories and the journalist that broke my Lai struggled to find a newspaper to publish his story

TV films crews could now get closer to the action
Walter Cronkite said the war was "Unwinnable"
Johnson said if he lost his support, her would lose the support of middle America
CBS showed marines setting fire to villager's homes


What did civil rights campaigners do in the Vietnam war? ( 2 )

30% of African Americans were drafted compared to 19% of white Americans

" we are spending $500,000 to kill one Viet Cong soldier whilst we spend $53 for every person considered to be in poverty in the USA " - Martin Luther King


What did students do in the war?

Thousands dodged the draft

In November 1969, almost 700,000 anti war protestors demonstrated in Washington

Biggest protest in American history


What was the Tet Offensive?

Turning point in the war

Viet Cong attacked over 100 cities and lost around 10,000 troops


Why was the Tet Offensive a turning point?

It made people question the war

Big attack on a small army

Why there were 500,000 troops in Vietnam and spending $20 billion a year on war


Consequences of the Tet offensive?

President Johnson concluded the war could not be won militarily

In March 1968 a peace conference began


What was vietnamisation?

Nixon would spend resources to train ARVN to protect themselves

He wanted to get "peace with honour"

He tried to weaken the communists so they would negotiate by lots of bombing.

He had SALT talks with the USSR which helped relations

SALT = strategic arms limitation talks


When and how did the Vietnam war end for America?

Peace was agreed in 1973

Vietnam could choose who rules them


Outcomes of the Vietnam war?

America withdrew but didn't lose as they didn't lose any battle of consequence

However Vietnam fell to communism in 1975

So they failed


What was Vietnam like before America's intervention? (4)

The Viet Minh controlled the north of Vietnam, it was communist

The Viet cong ( national front for the liberation of south Vietnam ) led a resistance against the south Vietnamese government who were capitalist

Fighting with them were the NVA

They were against the south Vietnamese army ( ARVN )