Flashcards in Book 3: Part 1 Liberal Reforms Deck (43):
What were living conditions like before the liberal reforms?
Cramped and unsanitary and disease ridden
one third of the population lived in poverty in the 1800s
What were attitudes to the poor like before the liberal reforms?
Poor were blamed for being in the situation they were in
They were generalised as people who would smoke and drink their money away
If the poor wished to be out of poverty, the rich believed they could
What was done to help the poor before the liberal reforms?
-charities were helping the poor.
By 1900, 22,000 charities were set up
This shows people were helping the poor rather than the government
-social reformers helped the poor
Charles Booth published 70 books and found that 30% of the population lived below the poverty line
-people took him seriously as he was a well respected business man
-this helped changed attitudes to the poor so the poor would receive more help
What did Seebohm Rowntree do?
He divided the poverty in York into primary poverty (10%) and secondary poverty (17%)
He identified the causes of poverty
Large family (52%)
Low wages (22%)
Death of wage earner (10%)
Illness and old age wage earner (5%)
This shocked the middle and upper class and changed views on the poor, this prompted people to take action to help the poor
What did John Galt do?
Put on lantern shows to the middle class
He showed images of the poor to show they weren't lazy and their jobs resulted in early death
This helped change the attitudes of the poor from the middle class. This prompted them to help the poor.
What did Charles Booth do?
Collected masses of information over 19 years and published 70 books.
He found that 30% of London lived below the poverty line.
He was taken seriously as he was a respected businessman. This prompted change as it changed people's negative view of the poor and prompted the middle class and upper class to help
What were the 6 main causes of the liberal reforms?
Increasing information about poverty
How did social reformers prompt the introduction of the liberal reforms?
Prompted the idea of "new liberalism"
This meant it was seen as morally wrong that supreme poverty should be allowed to exist alongside incredible wealth
Rowntree's work had a powerful impact. Social reformers changed people's views on the poor with their statistics and campaigning. This put pressure on the government to make positive changes
How did increasing information about poverty prompt the liberal reforms?
The Salvation Army sent new information to the government.
The governments own civil servants collected information about poverty
This put pressure on the government to help
What was employment like before the liberal reforms?
Dock workers- commonly got work 3 days a week
Had to search for work every day and wait by the docks
-struggle to find work past 40
How did the scale of the problem/unequal distribution of wealth prompt the Liberal Reforms?
Life expectancy for the poot was 45.
The top 10% of the population owned 92% of the wealth
How did national efficiency prompt the liberal reforms? -3 things
-the government had to reduce its minimum height to find enough soldiers
-in some poor areas of Britain, 69% of volunteers to fight in South Africa wee deemed unfit to fight as they had not grown properly
-by 1900, USA and Germany had overtake Britain as the biggest industrial power
How did key individuals prompt the introduction of the liberal reforms -2 people
David Lloyd George was a prominent member of the liberal party who rose to Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1908.
He sympathised with the poor as he was raised in poverty.
Winston Churchill switched to liberals in 1906 when the reforms started.
How did political rivalry prompt the liberal reforms?
Conservatives had introduced reforms and Liberals were worried middle class would vote for them.
Most working class men could vote by 1906, liberals feared they would vote for labour
When was labour formed?
What reforms did the conservatives introduce?
Unemployed workmens act
What was the people's budget? 4 mark
Lloyd George -chancellor of the exchequer had to raise money for his reforms.
He thought the rich had inherited wealth so should pay for the reforms.
He planned to tax the rich.
The House of Lords opposed the budget but when the liberals won the 1910 election they agreed
Which reforms benefitted workers?
National insurance act 1911
National insurance act 1912
Which reforms benefitted the elderly?
Pensions act 1908
Which reforms benefitted children?
Free school meals 1906
School medical inspections 1907
Children's act 1908
Which reforms benefitted the unemployed?
Labour exchange act 1909
What was life like for workers before the reforms?
If they were sick they would get no money for time off.
They were reliant on charity
They earned the equivalent of £10 for an 18 hour day in modern society
What was the national insurance act?
Aimed to prevent poverty through illness
They paid 4 pence per week.
Employer added 3 pence
Government added 2
Workers in the scheme were entitled to free medical care
10 million men and 4 million women were insured
WHat was the national insurance act part 2?
Aimed to prevent poverty when people fell out of workers
Open to people in unsteady trades like shipbuilding.
If a worker was unemployed, they could claim 7s 6d a week for up to 15 weeks per year.
It helped around 2.25 million people
How did the national insurance acts not benefit people?
It only covered people on low income.
There was not enough to support a working man and his family if the man was unemployed
This was deliberate so people would want to work
What was life like for the elderly before the reforms?
There is no system in place to help
They rely on charities and the workhouse
What was the pensions act?
People over 70 could get 5 shillings a week
Unless you earned over £31
Married couples got 7 shillings 6 pence
In the first year 650,000 people got pensions
People claiming outdoor relief fell by over 80,000
How did the pensions act not help people?
It only helped around half a million elderly
What was life like for children before the liberal reforms?
There is no real system to help them.
Orphans are looked after in workhouses
What was the free school meals act?
Local councils were given the power to provide free school meals for the poorest families
By 1914, over 158,000 children were having free school meals once a day
Almost 14 million free school meals were served in 1914
How did the free school meals act not help people?
Only about half of Britain's local authorities set up a meals service
What was the school medical inspections act?
It was compulsory
Doctors and nurses would go into schools and give medical checks and recommend treatment
How did the school medical inspections act not help people?
It was free
But until 1912, parents had to pay for any treatment
What was the children's act?
Insurance companies paid out money to parents if their child died in mysterious circumstances.
Parents could be prosecuted for cruelty to children
Children under 14 could not be sent to adult jails. They were sent to "borstal"
Children under 14 could not go into pubs
Children under 16 could not buy cigarettes
What was life like for the unemployed before the reforms?
They can get outdoor relief
Not all work is regulated
What was the labour exchanges act
Unemployed workers could go to a labour exchange to find work
They signed onto a register
By 1913, exchanges were putting 3000 people into jobs every working day
How did labour exchanges not help people?
Labour exchanges didn't create full employment
What did the liberals do to the House of Lords to pass the reforms?
They cut their power
What were the reactions to the reforms from the rich?
Hated it as taxes were raised to help pay
What was the reaction to the reforms from the conservatives?
They didn't want the rich to pay for the reforms. Thought they went too far as they taxed the rich
Was was the reaction to the reforms from the Labour Party?
They thought they didn't go far enough.
What was the reaction from employers on the reforms?
They had to pay 3 pence a week (act 1) and 2 pence (act 2)
They weren't happy they had to pay