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Flashcards in Book Flashcards on Fluids Deck (32):
1

Normal bicarbonate levels

22-26 mEq/L

2

Normal ChlorideLevels

96-106 mEq/L

3

Phosphate normal levels

2.4-4.4 mg/dL

4

Potassium normal level

3.5-5.0 mEq/L

5

Magnesium normal levels

1.5-2.5 mEq/L

6

Normal sodium level

135-145 mEq/L

7

Normal Calcium total

8.6-10.2 mg/dL

8

Normal Calcium ionized

4.6-5.3mg/dL

9

Explain diffusion

movement of molecules from a higher concentration to lower concentration
passive action

10

Explain facilitated diffusion

movement of molecules from a higher concentration to lower concentration
requires a protein channel

11

Explain active transport

process in which molecules move against the concentration gradient
requires external energy
sodium potassium pump

12

Explain osmosis

movement of water down a concentration gradient, a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration

13

What is osmotic pressure

the pull from a solution on water, higher the solute concentration, higher the osmotic pressure

14

what is osmolarity

measures the total milliosmoles per liter of solution
the concentration of molecules per volume of solution

15

what is osmolality

measures the number of millosmoles per kilogram of water

16

what is a normal plasma osmolality

275-295 mOsm/kg

17

Isotonic solution

a solution that has the same solute concentration as the cells

18

Hypotonic solution

a solution that is less concentrated than surrounding cells resulting in a net fluid movement into the cells

19

Hypertonic solution

a solution that is more concentrated than surrounding cells resulting in a net fluid movement out of the cells, resulting in cell shrinkage

20

Hydrostatic pressure

is the force within a fluid compartment

21

Oncotic pressure

is the osmotic pressure caused by plasma colloids in solution

22

What regulates fluid balance

hypothalmic-pituitary regulation
renal regulation
adrenal cotical regulation
cardiac regulation
gastrointestinal regulation

23

Explain how the hypothalamus and pituitary gland help to maintain water balance

Intact thirst mechanism
Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus sense a body fluid deficit which stimulates ADH release

24

How does aldosterone (mineralocorticoid) maintain water balance

potent sodium retaining and potassium-excreting capabilities

25

What are some considerations for older adults and fluid and electrolytes?

especially susceptible
structural changes to the kidneys
decreased GFR
decrease in renin and aldosterone
increase in ADH and ANP
decreased thirst mechanism

26

Causes of ECF volume deficit

increase in insensible water or perspiration
DI
osmotic diuresis
hemorrhage
GI loss
overuse of diuretics
Burns

27

Causes of ECF volume excess

excessive isotonic or hypotonic IV fluids
heart failure
renal failure
primary polydipsia
SIADH
cushing syndrome

28

What are the major actions of sodium

play a role in generation and transmission of nerve impulses
Muscle contractility
regulation of acid-base balance

29

what is the major regulatory organ of sodium?

the kidneys

30

how do the kidneys regulate sodium levels?

by excreting or retaining water under the influence of ADH & Aldosterone

31

Hypernatremia

an elevated serum sodium, may occur with water loss or sodium gain

32

causes of hypernatremia

IV fluids: hypertonic NaCl, excessive isotonic NaCl, IV sodium bicarbonate
Hypertonic tube feedings without water supplements
Near-drowning in salt water
inadequate water intake
excessive water loss
disease state