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Flashcards in Immunity Deck (119):
1

What are the main functions of immunity

Defense
Homeostasis
Surveillance

2

What is an antigen

substance that elicits an immune response

3

what are most antigens composed of

protein, but some may be composed of large polysaccharides, lipoproteins and nucleic acids

4

what is innate immunity

immunity that is present at birth and its primary role is first-line defense against pathogens** Non-specific**

5

what are the primary WBC involved in innate immunity

neutrophils and monocytes

6

how fast does innate immunity respond

innate immunity responds within minutes to exposure of microorganism because it is non-specific so it does not need prior sensitization

7

How do you get active acquired immunity

it results in the invasion of our cells by a foreign microorganism and then develops antibodies and sensitized lymphocytes

8

what is the difference between artificial and natural active immunity

natural comes after fighting off an actual infection
artificial comes from receiving an immunization

9

how fast does active acquired immunity respond

it takes longer to respond to foreign substances because it takes time to develop (making proper antibodies) but it is a long-term immunity

10

what is passive acquired immunity

implies that the host receives antibodies to an antigen rather than synthesizing them

11

what is natural passive immunity

transfer of immunoglobulins from mother to baby- IgG

12

what is artificial passive immunity

occurs through injection with gamma globulins- injection of human gamma globulins

13

How fast does passive immunity respond

immediate effect but it is short lived because the antibodies are not synthesized and because cells do not retain the memory of the particular antigen

14

What are the central lymphoid organs

Thymus gland and bone marrow

15

what are the peripheral lymphoid organs

lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen, and gut-, genital-, bronchial- and skin-associated lymphoid tissues

16

where are lymphocytes produced?

in bone marrow

17

where do T lymphocytes mature

in the thymus gland

18

what are the two major functions of lymph nodes

filtration of foreign material brought to the site and circulation of lymphocytes

19

why is the spleen important in immunity

the spleen is the primary site for filtering antigens from the blood

20

what are the two types of tissue in the spleen

the spleen consists of white pulp and red pulp

21

what cells are in the white pulp of the spleen

B and T lymphocytes

22

what lines the pulps and sinuses of the spleen

macrophages

23

what lymph tissue is associated with the skin?

consists of lymphocytes and langerhans cells - a type of dendritic cells

24

what are the mononuclear phagocytes

macrophages and monocytes

25

where are monocytes and macrophages found

monocytes- blood
macrophage- throughout body- tissue

26

what is the main function of mononuclear phagocytes

responsible for capturing, processing and presenting the antigen to the lymphocyte

27

where do B lymphocytes mature

in the bone marrow

28

what do B lymphocytes differentiated into

plasma cells when activated which plasma cells produce antibodies

29

what do you call batman when he skips church

christian Bale.... Hehehe

30

what is the primary responsibility of T lymphocyte

T lymphocytes are responsible for immunity to intracellular viruses, tumor cells, and fungi

31

what are the categories of T lymphocytes

T Cytotoxic cells and T helper cells

32

how long do T lymphocytes live

T lymphocytes live from a few months to the life span of the individual and account for long-term immunity

33

what is the function of T Cytotoxic cells

they are involved in attacking antigens on the cell membrane of foreign pathogens and releasing cytolytic substances and destroy pathogen
- some may remain as memory cells

34

What is the function of T helper cells

involved in the regulation of cell-mediated immunity and the humoral antibody response

35

what do T 1 helper cells do?

stimulate phagocyte-mediated ingestion and killing of microbes, the key component of cell-mediated immunity

36

what do T 2 helper cells do

stimulate eosinophil-mediated immunity, which is effective against parasites and is involved in allergic responses

37

what are Natural Killer Cells

they are large lymphocytes with large lymphocytes with numerous granules in the cytoplasm

38

what is the function of NK cells

they are involved in recognition and killing of virus-infected cells, tumor cells and trandplanted cells

39

What are dendritic cells

make up a system of cells that are important to the immune system, especially the cell mediated immune response- langerhans

40

what is the major function of dendritic cells

capture antigens at sites of contact with the external environment and then transport an antigen until it interacts with a T cell
- important in activating immune response

41

what do cytokines do

they instruct cells to alter their proliferation, differentiation, secretion, or activity.
The immune response, involves complex interactions of T cells, B cells, monocytes, and neutrophils

42

what is the function of interleukins

they act as immunomodulatory factors, colony-stimulating factors, colony-stimulating factors act as growth-regulating factors for hematopoietic cells

43

what is the function of interfeurons

they are antiviral and immunoregulatory
activation of NK cell production and activation and inhibition of tumor cell growth

44

what are some negative roles of cytokines

they can cause chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and sepsis

45

what are the characteristics of IgG

largest serum concentration
found in interstitial fluid and plasma
only immunoglobulin that crosses the placenta
responsible for secondary immune response

46

what are the characteristics of IgA

body secretions, including tears, saliva, breast milk, colostrum
lines mucous membranes and protects body surface

47

what are the characteristics of IgM

found in plasma
is responsible for primary immune response
forms antibodies to ABO antigens

48

characteristics of IgD

plasma
is present on lymphocyte surface
assists in the differentiation of B lymphocytes

49

characteristics of IgE

smallest serum concentration
found in plasma interstitial fluids
causes symptoms of allergic reactions
fixes to mast cells and basophils
assists in defense against parasitic infections

50

Cells involved with humoral immunity

B lymphocyte

51

Products of humoral immunity

antibodies

52

are memory cells present in humoral immunity

yes

53

what does humoral immunity protect against

bacteria
viruses-extracellular
respiratory and GI pathogens

54

examples of humoral immunity

anaphylactic shock
atopic disease
transfusion reactions
bacterial infections

55

cells involved in cell-mediated immunity

t lymphocytes
macrophages

56

produces of cell-mediated immunity

sensitized T cells, cytokines

57

are memory cells present in cell-mediated immunity

yes

58

what do cell-mediated immunity protect against

fungus
viruses- intracellular
chronic infectious agents
tumor cells

59

examples of cell-mediated immunity

TB
fungal infections
contact dermatitis
graft rejection
destruction of cancer cells

60

In humoral response when does an immune response become evident?

4-8 days after the initial exposure

61

what is the first antibody made in humoral response

IgM followed by IgG

62

what are the primary function of cell mediated immunity

1- immunity against pathogens that survive inside of cells, including viruses and some bacteria
2- fungal infections
3- rejection of transplanted tissue
4- contact hypersensitivity reactions
5- tumor immunity

63

Gerontologic effects on the immune system

thymic involution
decreased cell-mediated immunity
decreased delayed hypersensitivity reaction
decrease interferon synthesis
decreased proliferative response of T and B cell
Decreased primary and secondary antibody responses
increased autoantibodies

64

what is immunocompetence

when the body's immune system can identify and inactivate or destroy foreign substances

65

what happens when the immune system is incompeten

severe infections may occur, immunodeficient diseases, and malignancies

66

what happens when the immune system overeacts

hypersensitivity disorders may occur- allergies

67

what are hypersensitivity reactions

they are immune responses that over react to foreign antigens or its own tissue

68

what are autoimmune disease

hypersensitivity responses when the body fails to recognize self-proteins and reacts against self-antigens

69

what are the antigens in type 1 IgE-mediate

exogenous pollen, food, drugs, and dust

70

what are the antigens involved in type II: cytotoxic hypersensitivity

cell surfaces of RBCs and cell basement membranes

71

what are the antigens involved in type III immune complex reactions

extracellulal fungal, viral, bacterial

72

What are the antigens involved in type IV delayed hypersensitivity

intracellulla or extracellula

73

what are the antibodies involved in Type I mediated hypersensitivity

IgE

74

what are the antibodies involved in type II cytotoxic hypersitivity

IgG, IgM

75

what are the antibodies involved in Type III immune complex hypersensitiviy

IgG, IgM

76

what are the antibodies involved in Type IV delayed hypersensitivity

NONe

77

which hypersensitivity reactions is the complement system involved

Type II and type III

78

what are the major mediators of injury in type I hypersensitivity

Histamines
Mast Cells
Leukotriens
Prostoglandins

79

what are the major mediators of injury in Type II hypersensitivity

Complement Lysis
Macrophage in tissue

80

what are the major mediators of injury in type III hypersensitivty

Neutrophils
complement lysis
Monocytes and macrophage
lysosomal enzyme

81

what are the major mediators of injury in Type IV hypersensitivity

cytokines
T cytotoxic cells

82

Examples of Type I hypersensitivity

allergic rhinitis
asthma

83

Examples of Type II hypersensitivity

transfusion reaction
goodpasture syndrome
immune thrombocytoenic purpura
graves disease

84

Examples of Type III hypersensitivity

systemic lupus erythematosus
rheumatoid arthritis

85

Examples of Type IV hypersensitivity

contact dermatitis
poison IVY

86

what is the skin test of Type I hypersensitivity

wheal and flare

87

what is the skin test of Type II hypersensitivity

NONE

88

what is the skin test of Type III hypersensitivity

erythema and edema in 3-8 hr

89

what is the skin test of Type IV hypersensitivity

erythema and edema in 28-48hr - TB test

90

in Type I hypersensitivity which cells do IgE antibodies readily attach to

mast cells and basophils which release potent chemical mediators

91

what happens when a person is first exposed to an allergen in type I hypersensitivity

The allergen binds to B cells --> plasma cells then make a poop load of IgE antibodies to cause reaction--> IgE attach to mast cells and basophils

92

what happens when a person is exposed AGAIN to an allergen in type I hypersensitivity

the allergen binds to IgE on the mast cell or basophil which triggers degranulation of the cells and release the chemical mediators from the granules

93

what is the affect of releasing chemical mediators from granules in type I hypersensitivity

the chemicals attack target tissues causing allergy symptoms: increased vascular permeability, smooth muscle contraction, vasodilation, hypotension, increased secretion of mucus and itching

94

what is the anaphylactic localized cutaneous response

a wheal and flare reaction- pale wheal containing edematous fluid surrounded by a red wheal

95

what are the initial symptoms of anaphylaxis

edema and itching at the site of exposure to allergen

96

what are the neurologic symptoms of anaphylaxis

headache
dizziness
parasthesia
feeling of impending doom

97

what are the skin symptoms of anaphylaxis

pruritis
angioedema
erythema
urticaria

98

what are the respiratory symptoms of anaphylaxis

hoarseness
coughing
sensation of narrowed airway
wheezing stridor
dyspnea, tachypnea
respiratory arrest

99

what are the cardiovascular symptoms of anaphylaxis

hypotension
dysrhythmias
tachycardia
cardiac arrest

100

what are the GI symptoms of anaphylaxis

cramping
abdominal pain
nausea
vomiting
diarrhea

101

what is the most common type I hypersensitivity reaction

hay fever- allergic rhinitis

102

what are the target affected areas in allergic rhinits

conjunctiva of eyes
mucosa of upper respiratory tract

103

what are the symptoms of allergic rhinitis

nasal discharge
sneezing
lacrimation
mucosal swelling with airway obstruction
pruritus around eyes, nose, throat and mouth

104

what are the symptoms of asthma

dyspnea, wheezing, coughing, tightness in chest and thick sputum

105

what is atopic dermatitis

a chronic inherited skin disorders characterized by exacerbation and remissions

106

how is cellular tissue destroyed in type II hypersensitivity reactions

activation of the complement system resulting in cytolysis
enhanced phagocytosis

107

what cells are frequently destroyed in type II hypersensitivity reactions

RBC, platelets, leukocytes

108

what is goodpasture syndrome

disorder involving the lungs and kidneys- it occurs in alveolar and glomerular basement membranes
activates complement system
can cause pulmonary hemorrhage and glomerulaonephritis

109

what do allergy blood tests- test for

they test for IgE antibodies to a specific allergen - done using Elisa

110

what are the cardinal principle steps in managing anaphylaxis

1- recognition of signs and symptoms
2- maintenance of a patent airway
3- prevention of spread of allergen by using a tourniquet
4- administration of drugs
5- treatment for shock

111

Antihistamines are used to treat?

best to treat allergic rhinitis and urticaria

112

how do antihistamines work

they compete with histamines for receptor sites- should be taken as soon as symptoms appear

113

Sympathomimetic/decongestant drug- epinephrine cause what

they cause peripheral blood vessels vasoconstriction and relaxes bronchial smooth muscles

114

what cells do Sympathomimetic/decongestant drugs work on

mast cells to stabilize them from further degranulation

115

Autoimmunity

is an immune response against self in which the immune system no longer differentiates self from nonself

116

what is the most common lymphocyte?

T lymphocyte

117

what disease do you get from decorating christmas trees

tinselitus

118

guess what

I quit flashcards

119

hehehe

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FlqMnDUtfOQ