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Flashcards in Burns Deck (44):
1

How are burns classified

Depth
Extent
Location
Patient Risk factors (diabetic, elder patient, pediatrics)

2

What is the epidermis

nonvascular protective outer layer

3

What is the dermis

lies beneath the epidermis
contains CT, and blood vessels, hair follicles, nerve endings, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands

4

What is subcutaneous tissue

lies under the dermis
connects major vascular networks
fat
nerves and lymphatics

5

What are 1st degree burns

superficial partial thickness
sunburns
may have water blisters

6

What are 2nd degree burns

deep partial thickness

7

what are 3rd degree burns

full thickness

8

Characteristics of 1st degree burn

erythema (bright red), blanching, pain, water blisters only
may peal after 24 hours

9

What causes 1st degree burn

sunburn/flash burns

10

How do you treat 1st degree burn

Acetaminophen
Aloe vera gel
cool compress

11

Characteristics of second degree burns

epidermis and dermis involved
fluid-filled vesicles or blisters

12

What causes 2nd degree burns

flames
scalds
chemicals
tar
contact burn

13

Initial Cleaning of 2nd degree burns

remove clothing
remove loose skin
remove blisters
clean and disinfect
(may need surgical debridement/ skin grafting)

14

Modern treatment for 2nd degree burns and traditional

hydrocolloids
hydrofiber
sillcone
alginate
polyurethane
Traditional::
silvadene
paraffin gauze

15

Characteristics of 3rd degree burn

destruction of entire epidermis and dermis
dry and often painless

16

Define escharotomy

to release circumferential burn eschar and improve circulation to distal extremity

17

What is shock

a clinical syndrome involving impaired tissue perfusion and oxygenation

18

Burn Shock

state of hypovolemia that is life threatening and can begin 20 minutes ater injury
Evidenced by a severe drop in blood pressure and increased HR
- allow for an increased permeability

19

Electrolyte shift following burns

increased intracellular sodium leading hyponatremia
decreased intracellular K
Na/K pumps damaged
Magnesium and calcium may be lost through leakage from damaged tissue

20

define burn

an injury to the tissue of the body caused by heat, chemicals, electric current, radiation

21

define thermal burns

caused by flame, flash, scald, or contact hot object

22

The severity of thermal burns are dependent on?

the burning agent, and the duration of contact time

23

define chemical burns

results of contact with acids, alkalis, and organic compound

24

what are the three types of smoke and inhalation injuries?

metabolic asphyxiation
upper airway injury
lower airway injury

25

Metabolic asphyxiation causes what?

oxygen delivery impairment or oxygen consumption by tissue impairment

26

What are the consequences of metabolic asphyxiation

hypoxia and death when carbooxyhemoglobin has occurred

27

upper airway injuries result from what?

inhalation injury to mouth, oropharynx, and or larynx

28

Manifestation of upper airway injuries

redness, blistering, and edema (which can become lethal)

29

lower airway injury results from what?

breathing in toxic chemicals or smoke

30

where do lower airway injuries occur

trachea, bronchioles and alveoli

31

Clinical manifestations of lower airway injury

presence of facial burns or singed nasal or facial hair
dyspnea
carbonaceous sputum
wheezing
hoarseness
altered mental status

32

When does pulmonary edema appear in lower airway injury

may not appear until 12-24 hours after the burn

33

Define electrical burns

result from intense heat generated from an electric current

34

consequences of electrical burns

damage to nerves and vessels, causing tissue anoxia and death

35

The severity of electrical burns is dependent on what

amount of voltage, tissue resistance, current pathways, and amount of voltage

36

Risks for patient who has suffered an electrical burn

dysrhythmias, cardiac arrest, severe metabolic acidosis, and myoglobinuria

37

Phases of burn management

emergent, acute and rehavilitative

38

what is the greatest initial threat to a patient with major burns?

hypovolemic shock

39

what is second spacing

when fluid moves into the interstitium following a burn

40

what is third spacing

when fluid moves into areas that normally have minimal to no fluid

41

how are RBC lost as a consequence of a burn

by hemolysis from free radicals
direct loss from the burn
thrombosis in capillaries

42

what are the immunologic changes that occur as a result of a burn

skin barrier destroyed
bone marrow depression occurs
immunoglobins decreased

43

what three organ systems are susceptible to complications during the emergent phase?

cardiovascular system
respiratory system
urinary system

44

what is an escharotomy

incision through the full thickness of the burn