Books, Magizines, and Newspapers Flashcards Preview

Communications > Books, Magizines, and Newspapers > Flashcards

Flashcards in Books, Magizines, and Newspapers Deck (77):
1

the most credible source of print media

books

2

earliest known rolls containing writing

papyrus

3

Why may people use books

leisure, durability, education, preservation

4

When were papyrus rolls first made

3500 b.c.

5

1st known alphabet, writing that was based on speech rather than symbols

phenocian alphabet

6

When was wooden block printing first seen

during the Tang Dysnasty

7

first printed book in existence

Diamond Sutra

8

What can be used as writing materials

paper, clay tablets animal skins, parchment, linen, wood-pulp paper

9

roman meathod of book binding that used sheets of papyrus/parchment between paper

codex

10

Advantages of the codex

grater ease of rading and made codexes possible

11

Invented the first printing press that used movable type

Johann Gutenberg

12

first book to be printed with movable type

Mazerian bible

13

made the first printing press in england

William Caxton

14

What were some social changes books gave

formed new opinions, which led to the protestant ref.

15

1st printing press in America, established at harvard University in 1638

Cambridge Press

16

Describe te people of the coloniel period and readng

only wealthy could afford books, as they were expensive, there was a low literacy rate

17

Literacy rate in 1800

10%

18

What led to higher education rates

Compulsery

19

What indestrial improvement lowered costs of books?

Steam Engines and Mechanica Typesetting Machines

20

How much were books in the 19th century

10 cents

21

literacy rate by 1900

90%

22

What happend in the publising goes public era?

Led to mergers and independant companies sold stocks

23

Causes of the public era

competition amoung public houses, mass demand for works of fiction, commercialization of litature, and printing with buisnesses

24

books sold in stores to general customers

trade books

25

published for students

textbooks

26

post-grad specialist

scholarly books

27

mass marketed titles sold at stands and stores

paperback

28

Mix of enertntainment, culture, and commentary

magizines

29

first magizine publcations, both cretated in England

The tattler and the spectator

30

early american mags

The Port Folio, North American Review, and the Saturday evening post

31

first mag to have an audience of women

godey's lady book

32

made around the time of the civil war, became a source for opinion

The Nation

33

achieved mass ciruclation by making penny newspapers

Frank A. Munsey

34

Characteritics of modern day mags

low priced, large cirulation, support from advetisers, and service to diverse audiences

35

What did people refer to magizines as

people's champions because they exposed corruption

36

journalists who attacked and sought
changes from oil companies,
meat-packing firms, medicine
manufacturers, city govt.’s, labor
organizations, U.S. Senate

muckrackers

37

Why did muckrakers end

WWII

38

How did mags improve in the 30s-50s

improvement in production processes, bolder graphics, higher quality, more photojournalism

39

mag giants

Time, the new yorker

40

buisness mags

fortune and buisness week

41

Color photos of suggestive models


Competitive edge – bait for both male and
female readers (men wanted them, women
wanted to be them


“Esquire” – 1st of the “slick” mens’s
magazines

cover girl

42

1st of the “slick” mens’s
magazines

esquire

43

What was the effect of television on mags

TV made mags less popluar because it offered action, sound and color(1960s) and was affordable

44

What was the subscription war

magizines cut down on circulation because they were losing money

45

Began publishing in 4 regions as well as
nationally
Editorial content identical but advertising
varied by region
Advertisers able to reach particular regions
at lower cost

The Wall Street Journal

46

what did regional edits do

permitted advertisers and
manufacturers to reach customers whose
interest in news/ world affairs indicated high
education level/ affluence (valuable to
advertisers)

47

Most signifigant change in mag history

Shift from national magazines of general
interest (“Life”, “Look”) to more
specialized publications
Most magazines today appeal to specific
audiences in specific locales

48

How do people prepare for the relase of the magizine

Each issue prepared 4-6 months in
advance of publication
Some articles written by staff, others
contracted – balance of 2 techniques w/
edge toward staff writing b/c it is more
reliable and cheaper
Magazine editors try to maintain a
consistent tone – a proven format of
material that will appeal to the
magazine’s specific readership

49

Editor decides what gets printed
Dictated by rigid requirements of specific
audience

Gatekeeping function

50

Magizines that make the most money

National Geographic, Time, Reader's Digest, people

51

A geographically limited medium issued
regularly from a press on unbound paper
containing news, commentary, features, photos,
and advertising to serve the general interests of
a specific community or audience

newspaper

52

5 departments of most newspapers

News/ editorial
Advertising
Production
Circulation
Administration

53

Roman newspaper
Daily, handwritten gazette launched
by Julius Caesar, 59 BC
Reported newsworthy events, private
and official notices

Acta Diurna

54

China’s early version of the
newspaper
Provided news to gov’t officials and
intellectual elite

Ti Pao

55

Pamphlets dist. by English printers containign topical news

Tracts

56

Single sheet tracts dealing w/ current/
foreign affairs (common by 1621)

corantos

57

4 page bulletins of local news (1640’s)

diurnals

58

1st American Newspaper

“Publick Occurrences, both Foreign
and Domestick”

59

What happend to “Publick Occurrences, both Foreign
and Domestick”

It was ended by authorties because it did not have a lisence

60

Strategy of licensing that effectively
prevented “dangerous” ideas from
being printed

prior restraint

61

America’s 1st continuing newspaper
Published with support of colonial
gov’t

The Boston Newsletter

62

Who made the boston newsletter

John Campbell

63

“published by authority”
Contents similar to “Boston
Newsletter” (trite/ boring)

The Boston Gazette

64

who made the boston gazette

William Brooker

65

Differed from predecessors in
content and lack of proper license

The New England Corrant

66

Who was the author of the New England Corrant

James Franklin

67

challenges for early newspapers

Struggle for freedom of the press
without prior restraint
Quest to allow truth of statements as
a defense for libel

68

Who wrote the crisis papers

thomas paine

69

who wrote the federalist papers

alexander hamilton

70

1st true mass-circulation newspaper
Started by Benjamin Day in 1833

The sun

71

Why did the cost of newspapers decline

shifting of production costs to advertisers

72

1840-1870
Bridge btwn old and new press
Editors pursued principle of popular
appeal
Began methodical organization of
press into major social institution

era of personal editors

73

Editors invented incidents and
headlines to go with them
Facts played relatively small role –
excessive sensationalism
Consequence of circulation wars
Newspapers became big business

Yellow Journalism

74

non-newspaper content of the 1800s-1900s

Comic strips, advice columns,
puzzles, features, weekly columns

75

1920’s and 30’s
Represented renewed appeal of
sensationalism

Jazz journalism

76

Smaller tabloid format provided
easier reading for subway riders
Largest circulation in the U.S.

New York Daily News

77

Who founded the New York Times

Adolph Ochs in 1896