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Flashcards in Bordetella Deck (95):
1

What are two Bordetella species?

B. bronchiseptica
B. avium

2

What epithelium does B. bronchiseptica have an affinity for?

Ciliated respiratory epithelium

3

What is the main pathology of B. bronchiseptica in dogs?

Kennel cough

4

What is the pathology of B. bronchiseptica in pigs?

Atrophic rhinitis

5

What are the virulence factors of B. bronchiseptica?

Adhesins: ciliated respiratory epithelial (filamentous
Hemagglutinin)
Toxins
Biofilms

6

What are the toxins of B. bronchiseptica?

Hemolysin
Dermonecrotic toxin
Osteo toxin
Tracheal cytotoxin

7

What is Bvg regulon's role in B. bronchiseptica?

Phase variation
Virulent non virulent phase
Coordinates expression (or not in low temps) of virulence genes

8

What are the CS of non progressive atrophic rhinitis caused by B. bronchiseptica in pigs?

Damage of nasal mucosa
Production of mucus
Dermonecrotic toxin increased

9

What are the CS of pneumonic bordetellosis caused by B. bronchiseptica?

Age <1 week = primary infection
Age >1 week = secondary infection

Coughing and dyspnea in young animals
Generally no fever
Morbidity high
Mortality variable to high

10

What lesions in the lungs does pneumonic bordetellosis cause in pigs?

Pneumonia
Frontal and mid lobus
Go from red to brown/yellow-brown
Chronic: dry aspect
Purulent bronchiolitis and alveolitis

11

What is the epidemiology of progressive atrophic rhinitis in pigs?

Bordatella colonized easier than P. multocida
Direct contact-aerosol
Passed sow to offspring
Usually older piglets to younger

12

What are the symptoms of progressive atrophic rhinitis in pigs?

Sniffling
Sneezing
Progressive disease
Tears
Serous + blood

13

How would atrophic rhinitis be Tx in pigs?

Difficult
No optimal therapy
Hygiene
Management
Antibacterial
Vaccination (questionable in piglets)

14

What does Bordatella have acquired resistance to?

Sulfonamides

15

What are the CS of B. bronchiseptica, kennel cough in dogs (cats)?

Rhinitis
Laryngitis
Tracheobronchitis
Pneumonia and pleuritis

16

What are the symptoms of kennel cough?

In general onset is 6-7 weeks old, early is 3-4 weeks
Dry cough
Nose, eye
Decreased food intake and activity
Slow development and long excretion (2weeks)

17

How could kennel cough be prevented?

Vaccination (combo with inactivated and live vaccine)

18

What are the symptoms in B. bronchiseptica in cats?

Nasal discharge
Tears
Photophobia
Sneezing
Non-productive cough
Dyspnoea
Swelling of lymph nodes
Anorexia
Fever
Mortality

19

What are the CS of B. bronchiseptica in horses?

Seldom
Similar CS to dogs and cats

20

How would B. bronchiseptica be Tx in horses?

Prevent dust
Rest 3 weeks for full recovery
Prevent inhalation of spores of fungi

21

What does Bordetella cause in turkeys?

Coryza
Respiratory problems
B. Avium

22

Who are the carriers for bordetella in poultry?

Older animals

23

What are the symptoms of Bordetella in poultry?

High morbidity and low mortality
Growth decreases
Seromucous nose discharge
Eye
Sneezing
Head shaking
Further evolution

24

What is the Tx plan for Bordetella in poultry?

Hygiene
No mixing of ages
Inactivated vaccine for mother animals

25

What are the symptoms of Bordetella in rabbits?

Nasal discharge.
Sneezing, snoring
Congestion
Conjunctivitis
Tears
Eye localization: blindness
Ear infection
Abscesses

26

What does the Tx of Bordetella in rabbit depended on?

Depend on stage

27

T/F: Antibiotics can be used to Tx Bordetella in rabbits?

False, they are toxic (lincosamides: clindamycin, lincomycin; penicillins, macrolides)

28

What are some tolerated Ab's to use in rabbits with Bordetella?

Streptomycin
Neomycin
Tetracycline

29

What are the species of importance for Moraxella?

M. bovis
M. bovoculi
M. ovis

30

What are the CS of Moraxella bovis disease in bovine?

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis or 'pink eye'
Highly infectious
Mainly young animals

31

What is the pathogenesis of Moraxella bovis?

Specific attachment to bacteria to conjunctival/corneal epithelial
Production of toxin
Overall tissue damage
Inflammation
Further growth and production of toxins
Increased susceptibility for other pathogens
Non infectious damage: dust
Irreversible eye damage

32

What are predisposing factors to Moraxella bovis?

Main young cattle
Flies
Eye irritation
Bovine herpesviurs 1 infection
Mycoplasma bovoculi
Listeria monocytogenes

33

How is Moraxella bovis transmitted?

Direct contact with infected animal
Flies

34

How would Moraxella bovis be Tx?

Antibiotics
Corticosteroids
In separate stable

35

What is M. bovoculi associated with in bovine?

Keratoconjunctivitis in bovines

36

What is M. ovis associated with in bovine and sheep?

Keratoconjunctivitis
Pneumonia

37

What type of capsule does Pasteurella multocida?

Type A: mucoid -> capsule + hyaluronic acid

38

What are the virulence factors of Pasteurella multocida?

Adhesins
Capsule
Cell wall: LPS
Iron acquisition
Toxins: RTX, Rho activating toxin

39

The highly virulent strains of Pasteurella multocida are what kind of pathogen and cause what?

Obligate pathogenic: septicaemiae
In bovine, birds, rabbits

40

What kind of pathogen are the low virulent strains in Pasteurella multocida and what do they cause?

Facultative pathogenic: rhinitis, pneumonia
In pig, bovine, rabbits

41

Rhinitis in rabbits with P. multocida may evolve to what?

Pleuropneumonia
Otitis
Conjunctivitis
Abscesses

42

High pathogenic serovars of P. multocida in bovine cause what?

Hemorrhagic septicaemiae

43

What are two serotypes of highly pathogenic P. multocida in bovine?

B:2
E:2

44

What does P. multocida cause in pigs?

Atrophic rhinitis
Lung pasteurellosis

45

What are the CS of P. multocida in poultry?

Fowl cholera
Usually in young adults

46

What are hyperacute CS of P. multocida in poultry?

Septicemic

47

What are the acute signs of P. multocida in poultry?

Sudden death

48

What are the chronic signs of P. multocida in poultry?

Sneezing, nose excretions, edema head

49

What are the CS of P. multocida in cats and dogs?

Biting wounds and scratch lesions
Licking of wounds = wound infection

Cat biting a bird: bird gets Pasteurella septicaemiae

50

How would P. multocida be Tx?

Wound disinfection
Antibiotics

51

Mannheimia hemolytica used to be what?

Pasteurella hemolytica

52

What are the virulence factors of Mannheimia hemolytica?

Leukotoxin: RTX family (dose dependent)

53

Where is Mannnheimia hemolytica frequently found in sheep?

In the nose

54

T/F: Both primary and secondary infection are possible with Mannheimia hemolytica

True

55

T/F: As in sheep, Mannheimia hemolytica are also found frequently in the nose of bovines

False, seldom found in nose

56

What are some CS of Mannheimia hemolytica in calves?

Bacterial bronchopneumonia (shipping fever)

57

What is the endogenic pathogenesis of Mannheimia hemolytica?

Stress -> Multiplication -> excretion -> lung -> septicaemic

58

What is a secondary pathogen in bacterial bronchopneumonia?

P. multocida

59

What is the exogenic pathogenesis of Mannheimia hemolytica?

Excretion of high numbers of Mh by infected calves -> other animals infected

60

What is the immunity of Mannheimia hemolytica?

Mainly antibody mediated
Presence in tonsils
Protective antigens
Vaccines

61

What are general CS of Mannheimia hemolytica in bovine?

Shipping fever
Respiratory distress
General symptoms

62

What lesions are caused Mannheimia hemolytica in bovine?

Different grades and depending on complicating infections
Fibrous necrotizing bronchopneumonia
Serfibrinous pleuritis
Well defined pneumonia zones

63

What are the CS of Bibersteinia trehalosi?

Septicaemmiae at age 5-12 months
DD clostridium perfringens enterotoxemmia
Acute mortality
Stress

64

Haemophilus is NAD dependent and needs what for culture?

Staphylococcus

65

What age group does Haemophilus affect?

2 weeks - 4 months (mainly at weaning)

66

What are the virulence factors of Haemophilus?

Endotoxins
Transferrin binding proteins

67

What is the disease Haemophilus parasuis causes?

Glasses disease

68

What is the pathogenesis of H. parasuis?

Endogenic-exogenic infection -> septicaemiae -> Meningitis -> polyserositis, polyarthritis

69

What are the CS of Haemophilus felis in cats?

Pneumonia, chronic
Conjunctivitis

70

What are the symptoms of Histophilus somnei in bovine?

Septicaemia
CNS (TEME=Sleepers disease)
Arthritis
Retinitis
Myocarditis
Pneumonia
Mastitis
Abortion
Otitis

71

What are the virulence factors of Histophilus somnei?

LOS
OMPs
Host cell interaction
Biofilms

72

T/F: Avibacterium paragallinarum is NAD independent

True.

73

What is the pathogenesis of of Avibacterium paragallinarum?

Carriers
Transmission via drinking water and aerosol
Stress

74

What are the acute symptoms of Avibacterium paragallinarum?

General
Anorexia
Conjunctivitis

75

What are the subacute symptoms of Avibacterium paragallinarum?

Sinusitis and pus
Oedema head and neck

76

What are some predisposing factors of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale?

Stress
Intercurrent resp. infections
High density
Ventilation
Ammonia concentrations

77

What is the pathogenesis of O. rhinotracheale?

Predisposing factors
Nose and infraorbital sinus -> trachea -> air sac -> lung

78

What are the symptoms of O. rhinotracheale in avian?

Sneezing
Nose exudate
Coughing
Depression
Swelling sinus
Facial oedema
Anorexia
Dyspnea
Mortality low

79

What are the 2 biotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae?

Biotype 1: NAD Dependent
Biotype 2: NAD independent

80

What is the epidemiology of A. pleuropneumoniae?

Spread from pig to pig via direct contact and aerosols
Spread thru the stable

Inhalation or Tonsils/nose -> Terminal bronchioli alveoli

81

What are predisposing factors of A. pleuropneumoniae?

Bacteria and virulence factors
Host dependent
Stress

82

What are the symptoms of A. pleuropneumoniae?

Respiratory distress
General
Hyperacute
Acute
Chronic

83

How would A. pleuropneumoniae be Dx?

Detection of carriers
Antibodies
PCR - swab from nose and tonsils

84

What are the acute symptoms of A. suis?

Young animals
Acute mortality
APP

85

What are the less acute symptoms of A. suis in older piglets?

Fever, anorexia
Respiratory distress
Polyarthritis

86

What are the symptoms of A. suis is adult pigs?

Subcutaneous abscesses
Anorexia and fever
Meningitis possible

87

What are the carriers of A. equuli?

Mouth and GI tract

88

What are the toxins for A. equuli?

AQX toxins (RTX)

89

What are the symptoms A. equuli?

Bronchitis
Pleuritis
Pneumonia

90

What are the symptoms of A. equuli in a foal?

Septicaemiae
Sleepy foal disease
Enteritis
Slimy pus
Ab Tx
Colostrum

91

What are the symptoms of A. equuli in adult horses?

Abortions of the birth of "sleepy foal disease" foal
Septicaemiae
Frequently localization in joints
Ab Tx

92

A. lignieresii is an inhabitant of what in porcine?

Nasopharynx

93

What tissue/organ are affected by A. lignieresii?

Infection of weak tissues: CT proliferation
Mainly tongue

94

What lesions are caused by A. lignieresii?

Capsule of CT w/multiple granuloma's containing yellowish pus and "sulfur granules"

95

How would A. lignieresii be Dx?

Histology
Microscopy of granules
DD: Actinomycosis (affects bones)
Nocardiosis