Flashcards in Bordetella Deck (95):
What are two Bordetella species?
What epithelium does B. bronchiseptica have an affinity for?
Ciliated respiratory epithelium
What is the main pathology of B. bronchiseptica in dogs?
What is the pathology of B. bronchiseptica in pigs?
What are the virulence factors of B. bronchiseptica?
Adhesins: ciliated respiratory epithelial (filamentous
What are the toxins of B. bronchiseptica?
What is Bvg regulon's role in B. bronchiseptica?
Virulent non virulent phase
Coordinates expression (or not in low temps) of virulence genes
What are the CS of non progressive atrophic rhinitis caused by B. bronchiseptica in pigs?
Damage of nasal mucosa
Production of mucus
Dermonecrotic toxin increased
What are the CS of pneumonic bordetellosis caused by B. bronchiseptica?
Age <1 week = primary infection
Age >1 week = secondary infection
Coughing and dyspnea in young animals
Generally no fever
Mortality variable to high
What lesions in the lungs does pneumonic bordetellosis cause in pigs?
Frontal and mid lobus
Go from red to brown/yellow-brown
Chronic: dry aspect
Purulent bronchiolitis and alveolitis
What is the epidemiology of progressive atrophic rhinitis in pigs?
Bordatella colonized easier than P. multocida
Passed sow to offspring
Usually older piglets to younger
What are the symptoms of progressive atrophic rhinitis in pigs?
Serous + blood
How would atrophic rhinitis be Tx in pigs?
No optimal therapy
Vaccination (questionable in piglets)
What does Bordatella have acquired resistance to?
What are the CS of B. bronchiseptica, kennel cough in dogs (cats)?
Pneumonia and pleuritis
What are the symptoms of kennel cough?
In general onset is 6-7 weeks old, early is 3-4 weeks
Decreased food intake and activity
Slow development and long excretion (2weeks)
How could kennel cough be prevented?
Vaccination (combo with inactivated and live vaccine)
What are the symptoms in B. bronchiseptica in cats?
Swelling of lymph nodes
What are the CS of B. bronchiseptica in horses?
Similar CS to dogs and cats
How would B. bronchiseptica be Tx in horses?
Rest 3 weeks for full recovery
Prevent inhalation of spores of fungi
What does Bordetella cause in turkeys?
Who are the carriers for bordetella in poultry?
What are the symptoms of Bordetella in poultry?
High morbidity and low mortality
Seromucous nose discharge
What is the Tx plan for Bordetella in poultry?
No mixing of ages
Inactivated vaccine for mother animals
What are the symptoms of Bordetella in rabbits?
Eye localization: blindness
What does the Tx of Bordetella in rabbit depended on?
Depend on stage
T/F: Antibiotics can be used to Tx Bordetella in rabbits?
False, they are toxic (lincosamides: clindamycin, lincomycin; penicillins, macrolides)
What are some tolerated Ab's to use in rabbits with Bordetella?
What are the species of importance for Moraxella?
What are the CS of Moraxella bovis disease in bovine?
Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis or 'pink eye'
Mainly young animals
What is the pathogenesis of Moraxella bovis?
Specific attachment to bacteria to conjunctival/corneal epithelial
Production of toxin
Overall tissue damage
Further growth and production of toxins
Increased susceptibility for other pathogens
Non infectious damage: dust
Irreversible eye damage
What are predisposing factors to Moraxella bovis?
Main young cattle
Bovine herpesviurs 1 infection
How is Moraxella bovis transmitted?
Direct contact with infected animal
How would Moraxella bovis be Tx?
In separate stable
What is M. bovoculi associated with in bovine?
Keratoconjunctivitis in bovines
What is M. ovis associated with in bovine and sheep?
What type of capsule does Pasteurella multocida?
Type A: mucoid -> capsule + hyaluronic acid
What are the virulence factors of Pasteurella multocida?
Cell wall: LPS
Toxins: RTX, Rho activating toxin
The highly virulent strains of Pasteurella multocida are what kind of pathogen and cause what?
Obligate pathogenic: septicaemiae
In bovine, birds, rabbits
What kind of pathogen are the low virulent strains in Pasteurella multocida and what do they cause?
Facultative pathogenic: rhinitis, pneumonia
In pig, bovine, rabbits
Rhinitis in rabbits with P. multocida may evolve to what?
High pathogenic serovars of P. multocida in bovine cause what?
What are two serotypes of highly pathogenic P. multocida in bovine?
What does P. multocida cause in pigs?
What are the CS of P. multocida in poultry?
Usually in young adults
What are hyperacute CS of P. multocida in poultry?
What are the acute signs of P. multocida in poultry?
What are the chronic signs of P. multocida in poultry?
Sneezing, nose excretions, edema head
What are the CS of P. multocida in cats and dogs?
Biting wounds and scratch lesions
Licking of wounds = wound infection
Cat biting a bird: bird gets Pasteurella septicaemiae
How would P. multocida be Tx?
Mannheimia hemolytica used to be what?
What are the virulence factors of Mannheimia hemolytica?
Leukotoxin: RTX family (dose dependent)
Where is Mannnheimia hemolytica frequently found in sheep?
In the nose
T/F: Both primary and secondary infection are possible with Mannheimia hemolytica
T/F: As in sheep, Mannheimia hemolytica are also found frequently in the nose of bovines
False, seldom found in nose
What are some CS of Mannheimia hemolytica in calves?
Bacterial bronchopneumonia (shipping fever)
What is the endogenic pathogenesis of Mannheimia hemolytica?
Stress -> Multiplication -> excretion -> lung -> septicaemic
What is a secondary pathogen in bacterial bronchopneumonia?
What is the exogenic pathogenesis of Mannheimia hemolytica?
Excretion of high numbers of Mh by infected calves -> other animals infected
What is the immunity of Mannheimia hemolytica?
Mainly antibody mediated
Presence in tonsils
What are general CS of Mannheimia hemolytica in bovine?
What lesions are caused Mannheimia hemolytica in bovine?
Different grades and depending on complicating infections
Fibrous necrotizing bronchopneumonia
Well defined pneumonia zones
What are the CS of Bibersteinia trehalosi?
Septicaemmiae at age 5-12 months
DD clostridium perfringens enterotoxemmia
Haemophilus is NAD dependent and needs what for culture?
What age group does Haemophilus affect?
2 weeks - 4 months (mainly at weaning)
What are the virulence factors of Haemophilus?
Transferrin binding proteins
What is the disease Haemophilus parasuis causes?
What is the pathogenesis of H. parasuis?
Endogenic-exogenic infection -> septicaemiae -> Meningitis -> polyserositis, polyarthritis
What are the CS of Haemophilus felis in cats?
What are the symptoms of Histophilus somnei in bovine?
CNS (TEME=Sleepers disease)
What are the virulence factors of Histophilus somnei?
Host cell interaction
T/F: Avibacterium paragallinarum is NAD independent
What is the pathogenesis of of Avibacterium paragallinarum?
Transmission via drinking water and aerosol
What are the acute symptoms of Avibacterium paragallinarum?
What are the subacute symptoms of Avibacterium paragallinarum?
Sinusitis and pus
Oedema head and neck
What are some predisposing factors of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale?
Intercurrent resp. infections
What is the pathogenesis of O. rhinotracheale?
Nose and infraorbital sinus -> trachea -> air sac -> lung
What are the symptoms of O. rhinotracheale in avian?
What are the 2 biotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae?
Biotype 1: NAD Dependent
Biotype 2: NAD independent
What is the epidemiology of A. pleuropneumoniae?
Spread from pig to pig via direct contact and aerosols
Spread thru the stable
Inhalation or Tonsils/nose -> Terminal bronchioli alveoli
What are predisposing factors of A. pleuropneumoniae?
Bacteria and virulence factors
What are the symptoms of A. pleuropneumoniae?
How would A. pleuropneumoniae be Dx?
Detection of carriers
PCR - swab from nose and tonsils
What are the acute symptoms of A. suis?
What are the less acute symptoms of A. suis in older piglets?
What are the symptoms of A. suis is adult pigs?
Anorexia and fever
What are the carriers of A. equuli?
Mouth and GI tract
What are the toxins for A. equuli?
AQX toxins (RTX)
What are the symptoms A. equuli?
What are the symptoms of A. equuli in a foal?
Sleepy foal disease
What are the symptoms of A. equuli in adult horses?
Abortions of the birth of "sleepy foal disease" foal
Frequently localization in joints
A. lignieresii is an inhabitant of what in porcine?
What tissue/organ are affected by A. lignieresii?
Infection of weak tissues: CT proliferation
What lesions are caused by A. lignieresii?
Capsule of CT w/multiple granuloma's containing yellowish pus and "sulfur granules"