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Flashcards in Brain and Cranium Deck (62)
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1

How many bones are there in the skull?

22 excluding ossicles of ear - cranium (neurocranium and viscerocranium) and mandible

2

What are the two parts of the cranium?

cranium - base (brain sits here) and vault (where the brain is)

3

What are the bones making the cranium?

frontal, 2 parietal, occipital, 2 temporal, sphenoid and ethmoid

4

What are the facial bones?

2 maxilla, 2 zygoma, 2 nasal, 2 lacrimal, vomer, 2 inferior conchae, 2 palatine and mandible

5

What are the three sutures?

sagittal, coronal and lambdoid

6

What do babies skulls have and when do they close?

Babies have fontanelles - anterior and posterior

anterior - closes within 18-24 months

posterior - closes within 2-3 months

7

What are the three cranial fossae?

anterior, posterior and middle

8

What is the ventral surface of the brain?

the bottom that sits in the base

9

What is the first cranial nerve and what does it do?

olfactory - smell (olfactory epithelium via olfactory bulb)
SENSORY

10

What is the second cranial nerve and what does it do?

optic - vision (retina)
SENSORY

11

What is the third cranial nerve and what does it do?

oculomotor
MOTOR - superior inferior and medial rectus, inferior oblique and levator palpebrae muscles to move eyeball

PARASYMPATHETIC - pupillary constrictor and ciliary muscles via ciliary ganglion to constrict pupil

12

What is the fourth cranial nerve and what does it do?

trochlear
superior oblique muscle to move eyeball
MOTOR

13

What is the fifth cranial nerve and what does it do?

trigeminal
SENSORY - face, scalp, cornea, nasal and oral cavities, cranial dura (sensation)

MOTOR - muscle of chewing and tensor tympani muscle to open and close mouth and tense the tympanic membrane

14

What is the sixth cranial nerve and what does it do?

abducens
MOTOR - lateral rectus muscle to move eyeball

15

What is the seventh cranial nerve and what does it do?

facial

SENSORY - anterior two thirds of tongue for taste

MOTOR - muscles of face and stapedius muscle for facial movement and tension on middle ear bones

PNS - salivary and lacrimal glands for salivation and lacrimation

16

What is the second eighth cranial nerve and what does it do?

vestibulochochlear
SENSORY - vestibular apparatus and chochlea (vestibular sensation and hearing)

17

What is the ninth cranial nerve and what does it do?

glossopharyngeal

SENSORY - pharynx, posterior third of tongue, esutachian tube, middle ear and carotid body and sinus for sensation, taste and baro, chemoreception

MOTOR - stylopharyngeus muscle for swallowing
PNS - parotid gland for salivation

18

What is the tenth cranial nerve and what does it do?

vagus
SENSORY - pharynx,larynx, oesophagus, external ear, aortic bodies and arch for sensation and chemo, baroreception and visceral sensation

MOTOR - soft palate, pharynx, larynx and upper oesophagus for swallowing, speech

PNS - thoracic and abdominal viscera

19

What is the eleventh cranial nerve and what does it do?

accessory
MOTOR - sternocleiodomastoid and trapezius (movement of head and shoulder)

20

What is the twelfth cranial nerve and what does it do?

hypoglossal
MOTOR -intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles (tongue movement)

21

From which hole does the olfactory nerve emerge?

cribriform plate

22

From which hole does the optic nerve emerge?

optic canal

23

From which hole does the oculomotor nerve and sub opthalmic vein emerge?

superior orbital fissure

24

From which hole does the trochlear nerve emerge?

superior orbital fissure

25

From which hole does the trigeminal (first branch) nerve emerge?

first branch - opthalmic
superior orbital fissure

26

From which hole does the abducens nerve emerge?

superior orbital fissure

27

From which hole does the 2nd branch of the trigeminal nerve emerge?

maxilla - foramen rotundum

28

From which hole does the 3rd branch of the trigeminal nerve emerge?

madibular - foramen ovale

29

From which hole does the middle meningeal artery and vein emerge?

foramen spinosum

30

From which hole does the internal carotid artery emerge?

carotid canal