Flashcards in Spinal Cord Deck (53)
What are the superficial extrinsic muscles of the back? (look at diagrams)
- Latissimus dorsi
- Levator scapulae
What are the deep intrinsic muscles of the back? (look at diagrams)
What is the role of the trapezius?
Used to tilt and turn the head and neck, shrug, steady the shoulders, and twist the arms.
It elevates, depresses, rotates, and retracts the scapula, or shoulder blade
What is the role of the latissimus dorsi?
Extension, adduction, flexion from an extended position, and medial rotation of the shoulder joint.
What is the role of the levator scapulae?
elevates and rotates the scapula
What is the role of the rhomboids?
Draw in the scapula, pulling it towards the vertebral column and slightly elevate it. Rotate scapula inferiorly
What is the role of the erector spinae muscles?
Straighten the back and allows side-to-side rotation
What are the main ligaments of the vertebral column and where are they found?
Supraspinous ligaments – connects the tips of spinous processes
Interspinous ligaments – between adjacent spinous processes
Ligamenta flava – between adjacent vertebral arches
Posterior longitudinal ligament – posterior canal
Anterior longitudinal ligament – anterior of body
Which ligament is most likely to be injured during a hyper extended neck whip lash injury?
anterior longitudinal ligament
What are denticulate ligaments?
Projections of pia mater that anchor the spinal cord to the spinal cord
What is filum terminale?
Fibrous tissue that is a modification of pia mater than runs down in the cauda equina
What is the conus medullaris?
Where the spinal cord tapers out - around L2
What is C1 and C2 called?
1 - atlas
What type of joint is the atlanto-occipital?
What type of joint is the atlanto-axial?
NO (shaking head)
Describe the blood supply to the spinal cord
- One anterior and two posterior spinal arteries
- Supplemented by radicular arteries – branches of the intercostal arteries (important during surgery as if damaged can affect spinal nerves)
- Internal and external vertebral venous plexuses
What is the significance of the venous plexuses?
The venous plexus provides a path of metastases for cancer from the prostate gland to the brain.
How is C7 identified?
first obvious spinous process
How is T3 identifed?
Level with the medial end of scapular spine
How is T7 identified?
Level with the inferior angle of scapula
How is L2 identified?
Level of lowest part of 12th rib
How is L4 identified?
Level of iliac crest
Why should lumbar punctures not be taken when someone has high intracranial pressure?
The brainstem could fall through the foramen magnum
How can the lower sacral nerves by anesthetized alone?
through the sacral hiatus
What is scoliosis?
A bend in the spine in the lateral plane (sideways)
What is kyphosis?
An exaggerated thoracic curvature
What is lordosis?
An exaggerated lumbar curvature (from posterior to anterior curve)
Where is backache most common and why?
Lumbar as bears the most weight
Where is disc herniation most likely?
L5-S1 due to the angles