Brain Tumours Flashcards Preview

Neurology > Brain Tumours > Flashcards

Flashcards in Brain Tumours Deck (24):
1

What is the aetiology of brain tumours?

Genetic changes
Hereditary
Errors in foetal development
Ionizing radiation
Viruses
Injury or immunosuppression
Environmental hazards

2

How are brain tumours graded?

Microscopic appearance and growth rate
GX-G4

3

What are the general signs and symptoms of brain tumours?

Cerebral oedema
Increased ICP
Focal neurologic deficits
Obstruction of flow of CSF
Pituitary dysfunction
Papilloedema

4

What are the signs and symptoms of cerebral brain tumours?

Headache
Vomiting unrelated to food intake
Changes in visual fields and acuity
Hemiparesis or hemiplegia
Hypokinesia
Decreased tactile discrimination
Seizures
Changes in personality or behaviour

5

What are the signs and symptoms of a brainstem tumour?

Hearing loss
Facial pain and weakness
Dysphasia, decreased gag reflex
Nystagmus
Hoarseness
Ataxia and dysarthria

6

What are the signs and symptoms of cerebellar tumours?

Disturbances in coordination and equilibrium

7

What are the signs and symptoms of pituitary tumours?

Endocrine dysfunction
Visual deficits
Headache

8

What are the clinical signs of a frontal lobe tumour?

Inappropriate behaviour and personality change
Inability to concentrate
Impaired judgement
Memory loss
Headache
Expressive aphasia
Motor dysfunctions

9

What are the clinical signs of a parietal lobe tumour?

Sensory deficits- paresthesia, loss of 2 point discrimation, visual field deficits

10

What are the clinical signs of a temporal lobe tumour?

Psychomotor seizures
Hallucinations
Visceral symptoms

11

What are the clinical signs of an occipital lobe tumour?

Visual disturbances

12

What are the common intra-axial tumours?

Gliomas (astrocytoma, anapaestic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme)
Oligodendroglioma
Ependymomas
Medulloblastoma
CNS lymphoma

13

Who are the common extra-axial tumours?

Meningioma
Metastatic
Acoustic neuromas (Schwannoma)
Pituitary adenoma
Neurofibroma

14

What are the features of a CT of a meningioma?

Hypodense
Smooth or lobulated mass
Sometimes areas of calcification

15

What are the features of an MRI of a meningioma?

Isodense with grey matter

16

What are the features of a diffuse low grade astrocytoma on a CT?

Well circumscribed
Non-enhancing
Hypodense or isodense lesion

17

What are the features of a high grade astrocytoma on CT?

Hypodense or isodense
Central area of necrosis surrounded by thick enhancing rim
Surrounding oedema

18

What are the features of an oligodendroglioma on CT?

Well circumscribed, hypotenuse lesions with heavy calcifications
Cystic degeneration common

19

What are common brain metastases?

Melanoma
Renal cell
Choriocarcinoma

20

What are the diagnostic procedures for brain tumours?

Radiological imaging
Lumbar puncture/ CSF analysis
Pathology

21

What imaging is used for brain tumours?

Skull x rays
CT
MRI

22

What are the surgical options for brain tumours?

Resection
Biopsy
Craniotomy
Sterotaxis surgery
Transsphenoidal
Endoscopic

23

What are the post op complications?

Increased ICP
Haematoma
Hypovolaemic shock
Hydrocephalus
Wound infection
Seizures
CSF leak
Oedema
Meningitis
Pulmonary oedema
Atelectasis
Fluid and electrolyte imbalance

24

What are the other treatment options for brain tumours?

Radiation therapy
Chemotherapy