Flashcards in Brain Tumours Deck (24):
What is the aetiology of brain tumours?
Errors in foetal development
Injury or immunosuppression
How are brain tumours graded?
Microscopic appearance and growth rate
What are the general signs and symptoms of brain tumours?
Focal neurologic deficits
Obstruction of flow of CSF
What are the signs and symptoms of cerebral brain tumours?
Vomiting unrelated to food intake
Changes in visual fields and acuity
Hemiparesis or hemiplegia
Decreased tactile discrimination
Changes in personality or behaviour
What are the signs and symptoms of a brainstem tumour?
Facial pain and weakness
Dysphasia, decreased gag reflex
Ataxia and dysarthria
What are the signs and symptoms of cerebellar tumours?
Disturbances in coordination and equilibrium
What are the signs and symptoms of pituitary tumours?
What are the clinical signs of a frontal lobe tumour?
Inappropriate behaviour and personality change
Inability to concentrate
What are the clinical signs of a parietal lobe tumour?
Sensory deficits- paresthesia, loss of 2 point discrimation, visual field deficits
What are the clinical signs of a temporal lobe tumour?
What are the clinical signs of an occipital lobe tumour?
What are the common intra-axial tumours?
Gliomas (astrocytoma, anapaestic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme)
Who are the common extra-axial tumours?
Acoustic neuromas (Schwannoma)
What are the features of a CT of a meningioma?
Smooth or lobulated mass
Sometimes areas of calcification
What are the features of an MRI of a meningioma?
Isodense with grey matter
What are the features of a diffuse low grade astrocytoma on a CT?
Hypodense or isodense lesion
What are the features of a high grade astrocytoma on CT?
Hypodense or isodense
Central area of necrosis surrounded by thick enhancing rim
What are the features of an oligodendroglioma on CT?
Well circumscribed, hypotenuse lesions with heavy calcifications
Cystic degeneration common
What are common brain metastases?
What are the diagnostic procedures for brain tumours?
Lumbar puncture/ CSF analysis
What imaging is used for brain tumours?
Skull x rays
What are the surgical options for brain tumours?
What are the post op complications?
Fluid and electrolyte imbalance