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Neurology > Topography of the Brain > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topography of the Brain Deck (43):
1

What are the 3 parts of the brainstem?

Midbrain
Pons
Medulla

2

Where are tracts found?

White matter

3

What cranial nerves exit from the medulla?

All except 1 and 2

4

What are the functions of the brainstem?

Pathway for tracts
Innervation of head and neck
Autonomic control of vital centres (cardiorespiratory)

5

What ventricle is associated with the medulla?

4th ventricle

6

What does the medulla once it has passed through the foramen magnum?

Spinal cord

7

What connects the medulla to the cerebellum?

Inferior cerebellar peduncle

8

Where is the 4th ventricle in relation to the pons?

4th ventricle is posterior to the pons

9

What cranial nerves are associated with the medulla?

Cranial nerves 9, 10, 11 and 12

10

What surface features are found on the pons?

Middle cerebellar peduncle
Cranial nerves 5, 6, 7 and 8

11

What does the midbrain develop from?

Mesencephalon

12

What surface features are found on the midbrain?

Superior cerebellar peduncle
Cranial nerves 3 and 4
Superior and inferior colliculus

13

What central cavity is present in the midbrain?

Cerebral aqueduct

14

What does the cerebral aqueduct connect?

3rd and 4th ventricles

15

What are the hemispheres of the cerebellum separated by?

Vermis

16

What are the lobes of the cerebellar hemispheres?

Anterior
Posterior
Flocculonodular

17

What are the functions of the cerebellum?

Posture maintenance
Fine tuning motor activity

18

What does the diencephalon develop from?

Diencephalic vesicle

19

What are the paired structures of the diencephalon?

Thalamus
Hypothalamus (and pituitary)
Epithalamus (pineal gland)

20

Where are the paired structures of the diencephalon found?

Mainly grey matter

21

What side of the body does the cerebellum control?

Same side

22

What is the contents of the thalamus?

Groups of nuclei

23

What is the function of the thalamus?

Sensory relay station

24

Where is the hypothalamus located?

Below the thalamus

25

How is the hypothalamus separated from the thalamus?

Hypothalamic sulcus

26

What is the role of hypothalamus?

Autonomic control centre
Body temperature regulation
Food intake regulation
Water balance and thirst regulation
Sleep wake regulation
Control of endocrine system functioning

27

Where do the internal carotid arteries enter the skull?

Carotid canal (foramen lacerum)

28

Where do the vertebral arteries enter the skull?

Foramen magnum

29

What branches of the internal carotid arteries supply the brain?

Anterior cerebral artery
Middle cerebral artery
Posterior communicating artery

30

What branches of the internal carotid artery supply a large part of the cerebral hemispheres?

Anterior cerebral arteries
Middle cerebral arteries

31

What do the vertebral arteries form when joined?

Basilar artery on the ventral surface of the brainstem

32

What areas do the vertebra-bassilar system supply?

Brainstem and cerebellum

33

What level does the basilar artery end?

Midbrain

34

What does the basilar artery divide into?

Posterior cerebral arteries

35

What area do the posterior cerebral arteries supply?

Posterior part of the cerebral hemispheres

36

What comprises the circle of Willis?

ICA branches
Posterior cerebral arteries

37

What is the clinical importance of the circle of Willis?

Protects against vasoocclusion of large arteries

38

What area does the anterior cerebral artery supply?

Medial aspect of the cerebral hemispheres

39

What area does the middle cerebral artery supply?

Lateral aspect of the cerebral hemispheres

40

What area does the posterior cerebral artery supply?

Inferior aspect of the cerebral hemispheres
Occipital lobe

41

Where do the veins of the brain drain to?

Venous sinuses

42

Where are the venous sinuses located?

Between the 2 layers of the dura mater

43

Where do the venous sinuses drain to?

Internal jugular vein