Breast Cancer Flashcards Preview

MedED Year 3 Breast + Neck Lumps > Breast Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Breast Cancer Deck (20)
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1

Definition of breast cancer?

Malignancy of breast tissue?

2

Most common type and epidemiology of breast cancer?

Invasive ductal carcinoma
- most common cancer in the UK
- affects men as well, but obviously women more

3

What is staging of cancer?

analysis of Spread

4

What mnemonic used to describe staging?

TNM
- tumour
- nodes
- metastases

5

What is grading of cancer?

analysis of Differentiation

6

What grading system is used in breast cancer?

Nottingham grading system

7

What are the invasive and non-invasive forms of breast cancer?

Non-invasive - DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ)

Invasive - infiltrative ductal carcinoma (75%), infiltrative lobular carcinoma, Paget's disease of the breast

8

Risk factors for breast cancer?

Age
FHx - 1st degree relative
Obesity
Increased oestrogen exposure
Alcohol
Fatty diet
Previous chest radiation
Nulliparity
Familial breast cancer

9

Evidence of increased oestrogen exposure?

Early menarche (<11)
Late menopause (>55)
HRT/OCP

10

What gene and other cancers is breast cancer associated with?

BRCA 1/2
- ovarian and pancreatic cancer

11

SCTF presentation of breast cancer?

S - increased size, lump, skin changes

C - hard lump, irregular margins, redness, non-compressible

T - generally painless, inflammatory breast cancer (painful + warm)

F - tethered to underlying tissue, immobile

12

Symptoms of metastases from breast cancer?

Bone pain
Shortness of breath
Neurological symptoms (rare)

13

Skin changes in breast cancer?

- Armpit skin thickening
- Peau d'orange
- Skin dimpling
- Nipple discharge (sometimes bloody)
- Nipple inversion
- Eczematous-looking skin (Paget's)

14

Investigation process to confirm suspected breast cancer?

Triple assessment
- clinical examination
- imaging (<35 = USS, >35 = mammogram)
- tissue diagnosis (FNA, core biopsy)

15

Appropriate investigations once breast cancer is diagnosed?

Staging (commonly mets to liver, lung, bones)
- CXR
- Liver USS
- CT (brain/chest)
- bone scan

Bloods (same principle)
- FBC
- U&Es
- calcium + bone profile
- LFTs
- ESR

16

Management of breast cancer?

Depends on type, stage, and grade of cancer
Includes:
- surgery
- medications
- chemotherapy
- monoclonal antibodies
- radiotherapy

17

Appropriate surgical management options for breast cancer?

Total mastectomy
Lumpectomy
Sentinel LN biopsy or axillary LN clearance (depends on number of LNs removed)

18

Appropriate medication management options for breast cancer?

Oestrogen receptor antagonists (tamoxifen)

Aromatase inhibitors (letrozole)

19

Types of chemotherapy viable in management of breast cancer?

Neo-adjuvant or adjuvant

20

Why/when is radiotherapy useful in management of breast cancer?

Reduces risk of recurrence post-surgery