Flashcards in Breathing Difficulties Deck (21):
What are the most common conditions leading to SOB in children?
Asthma, Bronchiolitis, Pneumonia and croup
What are the common microorganisms that leads to respiratory distress in children?
RSV - Respiratory Syncytial virus
HMPV - Human Metapneumovirus
What is HMPV? Which family of virus does it belong to?
HMPV is Human Metapneumovirus (in the paramyxovirus family similar to RSV and measles).
What does HMPV cause? Signs and Symptoms?
Can cause Upper and lower respiratory infection (examples of the latter being bronchiolitis and pneumonia).
Cough, Nasal congestion, fever and SOB.
When is Bronchiolitis mostly presented in? Who is most affected by it?
Bronchiolitis is mostly seen in infants aged 1 month to 1 year old, and mostly occurs in winter months (sept to apr)
Is the upper or lower respiratory tract affected in Bronchiolitis?
Lower respiratory tract
Is Bronchiolitis commonly caused by viruses or bacteria? Give the name of the most common causative organism.
Bronchiolitis is mostly due to viruses, especially RSV. Others include adenovirus, influenza and parainfluenza virus.
What is given prophylactically to high risk infants of bronchiolitis? Who are the high risk infants?
High risk infants include those born premature, or have congenital heart disease. Monoclonal antibody against RSV - Palivizumab
What are the treatments for croup?
Steroids, such as nebulised budesonide and oral dexamethasone
What is the cause of croup?
Viral infection - Parainfluenza - of the upper airways, leading to inflammation
What is the danger in severe croup?
In severe croup, the sick child may get tired from too severe breathing difficulties, which can lead to respiratory failure.
What is given to buy time for steroids to work on Croup?
What are the viral causes of pneumonia?
Respiratory Syncytial Virus
What are the bacterial causes of pneumonia?
In Newborns: B beta-haemolytic streptococcus
Pneumonia is an upper or lower respiratory tract infection?
Lower respiratory tract infection
What is the first line treatment for lobar pneumonia?
What investigations are done to reveal the causative organism of pneumonia?
Blood and sputum cultures
What is useful in the diagnosis of Mycoplasma Pneumonia? What is the treatment of Mycoplasma Pneumonia?
What increases the risk of severe bronchiolitis?
Underlying conditions such as congenital heart disease or prematurity
Per-nasal swabs can help to isolate which bacteria?