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Flashcards in Neurological disorders NOT impt Deck (15):
1

What may a toe-heel pattern of walking suggest?

Idiopathic, pyramidal tract (corticospinal) dysfunction, a foot drop (due to common or superficial peroneal nerve lesion), or tight tendo-achilles due to a neuromuscular disease.

2

What is Gowers sign? In which condition is this sign evident?

Gowers sign is observed when the child needs to push off the ground with straightened arms and then climb up the legs (as seen in Duchenne muscular dystrophy)

3

What are the 2 disorders of the anterior horn cell?

Spinal muscular atrophy and Poliomyelitis

4

What is the name of Spinal muscular atrophy type 1?

Werdnig-Hoffmann disease

5

When does Spinal muscular atrophy type 1 presents? What is the cause of death for infants of this condition, and how long can they usually live until?

Werdnig-Hoffmann disease presents in early infancy.
Respiratory failure is the cause of death. Death is within 12 months.

6

What are the signs of Werdnig-Hoffmann disease?

proximal muscle wasting, intercostal recession and chest deformity due to weakness of the intercostal muscles, fasciculations of the tongue, lack of antigravity power in hip flexors.

7

How different are Spinal muscular atrophy type 1, type 2 and type 3?

SMA type 1: the children can never sit up unaided.
SMA type 2: the children can sit, but never walks independently. Life-expectancy is shortened but child can live into adulthood.
SMA type 3: Child does walk, presents later in life. No change to life expectancy.

8

How is Kerdnig-Hoffmann disease managed?

Kerdnig-Hoffmann disease is managed supportively, such as having proper respiratory support

9

What is the cause of Guillain-Barre syndrome? When does it usually presents?

Guillain-Barre syndrome is due to production of antibodies targeted against the protein components of myelin. Guillain-Barre syndrome usually presents 2-3 weeks after an upper respiratory tract infection or campylobacter gastroenteritis.

10

What is Ramsay Hunt syndrome due to? What are the signs and symptoms of Ramsay Hunt syndrome?

Ramsay Hunt syndrome is due to shingles outbreak affecting the facial nerve near one of the ear.
It presents with
- painful shingles rash,
- one sided facial paralysis (no forehead sparing - LMN lesion),
- difficulty closing the eye on the affected side
- hearing loss in the affected ear or tinnitus
- A change in taste perception or loss of taste
- Vertigo

11

What is Bell's palsy?

Bell's palsy is an acute idiopathic facial nerve paralysis. It is associated with herpes simplex virus.

12

What is the main complication of Bell's palsy?

Conjunctivitis due to incomplete closure of the eyelid on the affected side.

13

What is the prognosis of Bell's palsy?

Good prognosis, most patients are able to recover within 9 months

14

Is antiviral medications such as Aciclovir used in Bell's palsy?

NO

15

What are the management steps of Bell's palsy?

Lubricating eye drops during the day and ointment at night to keep affected eye lubricated.
Advice to close the eye at bedtime with microporous tape.
Prednisolone if patient presents within 72 hours of disease onset to increase the likelihood of complete recovery.