Bronchial Carcinoma Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bronchial Carcinoma Deck (18):
1

Headaches if you get a cerebral metastasis?

Often worse in the morning
Not photophibic

2

Invasion of T1 by a pancoast tumour can lead to what?

Muscle wasting in the hand
(because the tumour has grown into the brachial plexus)

3

What may happen if a lung cancer metastasises to the cortex?

Fit

4

How could you relieve the odema in the short term caused by a brain metastasis?

High dose steroids e.g. Dexamethasone

5

Liver function tests particularly abnormal in liver metasases?

Alkaline phosphatase

6

Features of hypercalcemia?

Headaches, thirst, confusion and constipation

7

What is the main symptom of hyponatremia?

Confusion
(Hyponatremia may occur if a substance similar to ADH is produced)

8

Which cancers can present with thrombophlebitis?

Lung, gastric and pancreatic
Cancer patients have blood with an increased coagulability

9

Apart from bronchoscopy and a CT guided biopsy, how could you make a tissue diagnosis for lung cancer?

Lymph node aspirate
Aspiration of pleural fluid

10

What activates pepsinogen to pepsin?

HCl

11

When does secretion of somatostatin occur?

In between meals

12

What does pirenzepine do in acid secretion?
(these drugs bind competitively)

Muscarinic antagonist for the receptor on the paracrine and parietal cell
Decreases acid production

13

What does ranitidine do?
(these drugs bind competitively)

Blocks the H2 receptor on the parietal cell
(H2 H2 H2!!)
Decreases acid production

14

What is omperazole?

Proton pump inhibitor

15

NSAIDs (including aspirin) blocks COX which results in a decreased formation of what prostaglandin?
(NSAIDs bind irreversibly)

Prostaglangin E
This means that more acid will be produced

16

How does Omeprazole inhibit the proton pump?

Covalent modification

17

How do prostaglandins protect the mucous layer?

Increase mucosal blood flow
Increase mucous and bicarbonate secretion
Decrease acid production

18

What is misoprostol?

A prostaglandin E analogue