Flashcards in Cardiac Deck (38):
Differential diagnosis of angina
Aortic valve stenosis
The two main causes of atrial fibrillation
The three main causes of palpitations
Clinical signs of valvular disease
SOB, chest pain & dizzy (on exertion)
New York Hear Association Functional Classification
What kind of murmurs are louder with inspiration?
Right sided murmurs
Valves conditions that present with displaced apex beat
Valve condition with forceful apex
Valve condition with tapping apex
Causes of right bundle branch block
Congenital heart disease
Causes of left bundle branch block
Left ventricular outflow obstruction
Coronary artery disease
Which murmur is best heard at the lower left sternal angle?
Valve condition with straight left heart border?
Valve condition which may present with malar flush?
Causes of aortic stenosis
-Congenital bicuspid valve
Causes of mitral regurgitation
Damage to leaflets, chordae, papillary muscle, ventricle
Causes of mitral stenosis
-Rheumatic heart disease
Cause of aortic regurgitation
Treatment of aortic/mitral stenosis
Aldosterone producing adenoma
What causes an increased intensity of P2? (Louder at left parasternal 2nd intercostal space
What causes a wide splitting of P2?
(Wide splitting is expiration, fixed splitting in both inspiration and expiration)
-Anything that delays conduction down right bundle (RBBB,pre-excitation of left ventricle, pacing of left ventricle, premature LV beats)
-pulmonary arterial hypertension
What causes fixed splitting?
-ASD (due to continuous blood flow from left to right side of heart leading to lengthened cardiac cycle on right)
-Right heart failure
Signs of heart failure?
Brain natriuretic levels are raised in which condition?
What are creatinine levels used to measure?
When the heart is on the right side
What might echocardiography show in marfans?
-mitral valve prolapse
Virus causing acute epiglottitis?
Haemophilus influenzae type b
When are varicose veins most prominent?
Complications of varicose veins?
Bleeding and bruising
Chronic venous insufficiency
Chronic venous insufficiency caused by varicose veins?
First aid treatment for bleeding varicose veins?
Pressure and elevation
Term to describe a break in the skin for at least 6/52 between the malleoli and the tibial tuberosity presumed to be venous disease?
Chronic venous ulceration lawl
Clinical features of lipidermatosclerosis
White cells, inflammation and fibrosis
Investigation of varicose veins?
Duplex scan. Focuses on 2 main issues:
-State of the deeps veins (occlusion/incompetence)
When is compression contraindicated for treatment of varicose veins?
When the patient has a low ABPI