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Flashcards in Cardiac Deck (38):
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Differential diagnosis of angina

Aortic valve stenosis

1

The two main causes of atrial fibrillation

Hypertension
Heart disease

2

The three main causes of palpitations

Hypertension
Heart failure
Ischemia

3

Clinical signs of valvular disease

SOB, chest pain & dizzy (on exertion)

4

New York Hear Association Functional Classification

Class I
Class II
Class III
Class IV

5

What kind of murmurs are louder with inspiration?

Right sided murmurs

6

Valves conditions that present with displaced apex beat

Mitral regurgitation
Aortic regurgitation

7

Valve condition with forceful apex

Aortic stenosis

8

Valve condition with tapping apex

Mitral stenosis

9

Causes of right bundle branch block

Congenital heart disease
Pulmonary disease
Myocardial disease

10

Causes of left bundle branch block

Left ventricular outflow obstruction
Coronary artery disease

11

Which murmur is best heard at the lower left sternal angle?

Aortic regurgitation

12

Valve condition with straight left heart border?

Mitral stenosis

13

Valve condition which may present with malar flush?

Mitral stenosis

14

Causes of aortic stenosis

-Congenital bicuspid valve
-Age related
-Rheumatic fever

15

Causes of mitral regurgitation

Damage to leaflets, chordae, papillary muscle, ventricle

16

Causes of mitral stenosis

-Rheumatic heart disease
(Rarely congenital)

17

Cause of aortic regurgitation

Damage to:
-the leaflets
-annulus

18

Treatment of aortic/mitral stenosis

Balloon valvuloplasty

19

Conns syndrome

Aldosterone producing adenoma

20

What causes an increased intensity of P2? (Louder at left parasternal 2nd intercostal space

-Pulmonary hypertension
-ASD

21

What causes a wide splitting of P2?
(Wide splitting is expiration, fixed splitting in both inspiration and expiration)

-Anything that delays conduction down right bundle (RBBB,pre-excitation of left ventricle, pacing of left ventricle, premature LV beats)
-pulmonary stenosis
-pulmonary arterial hypertension

22

What causes fixed splitting?

-ASD (due to continuous blood flow from left to right side of heart leading to lengthened cardiac cycle on right)
-Right heart failure
-Pulmonary hypertension

23

Signs of heart failure?

-breathlessness
-extreme tiredness
-ankle swelling

24

Brain natriuretic levels are raised in which condition?

-heart failure

25

What are creatinine levels used to measure?

Kidney disease

26

Dextrocardia

When the heart is on the right side

27

What might echocardiography show in marfans?

-mitral valve prolapse
-mitral regurgitation

28

Virus causing acute epiglottitis?

Haemophilus influenzae type b

29

When are varicose veins most prominent?

When standing

30

Complications of varicose veins?

Bleeding and bruising
Thrombophlebitis
Chronic venous insufficiency

31

Chronic venous insufficiency caused by varicose veins?

Haemosiderin deposits
Lipodermatosclerosis
Ulceration

32

First aid treatment for bleeding varicose veins?

Pressure and elevation

33

Term to describe a break in the skin for at least 6/52 between the malleoli and the tibial tuberosity presumed to be venous disease?

Chronic venous ulceration lawl

34

Clinical features of lipidermatosclerosis

White cells, inflammation and fibrosis

35

Investigation of varicose veins?

Duplex scan. Focuses on 2 main issues:
-State of the deeps veins (occlusion/incompetence)
-Saphenofemoral/saphenopopliteal incompetence

36

When is compression contraindicated for treatment of varicose veins?

When the patient has a low ABPI

37

Aetiology of varicose veins?

Primary and post pregnancy
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