BSI Lecture 1 Organelle Functions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in BSI Lecture 1 Organelle Functions Deck (35):
1

Plasma membrane

1. selective barrier between internal and external environment
2. composed of lipid bilayer; contains membrane proteins and cholesterol

2

Cytosol

fluid portion of cytoplasm that surrounds the organelles

3

Cytoskeleton

serves as a scaffold that helps to determine a cell's shape and to organize the cellular contents

4

Actin

1. subunit: actin protein
2. controls cell structure/shape
3. essential for movement of whole cells (cell crawling)

5

Intermediate filaments

1. most durable
2. provide cells with mechanical strength
3. the proteins that make up intermediate filaments are cell-type specific

6

Microtubules

1. subunit: tubulin
2. grow and radiate out from the centrosome
3. constantly dissembling and reassembling-very dynamic
4. anchors organelles
5. act as a guide for intracellular transport. Kinesin and dynein are two motor proteins that walk along the microtubules carrying cargo
6. form mitotic spindle during mitosis
7. form cilia and flagella

7

Nucleus

1. location of DNA containing the majority of a cell's genes
2. controls cellular structure
3. directs cellular activity

8

Nuclear envelope

1. inner nuclear membrane which is in contact with nuclear lamina
2. Outer nuclear membrane which is continuous with ER

9

Nuclear lamina

1. filamentous network of protein (lamins) within nucleus
2. binds to chromatin and inner membrane of nuclear envelope
3. gives structural support to the nuclear envelope

10

Nuclear pores

1. site of all traffic between nucleus and cytoplasm

11

Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC)

1. composed of more than 50 proteins called nucleoporins
2. small water-soluble molecules can freely diffuse through
3. larger molecules (RNA, protein) are regulated

12

Nucleolus

1. cluster of protein, DNA, and RNA within nucleus
2. Where transcription of rRNA genes and assembly of ribosomes occurs

13

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

membranous sacs continuous withe outer membrane of nuclear envelope

14

Rough ER

1. site of protein synthesis for transmembrane proteins, secretory proteins, and most proteins stored in the golgi apparatus, lysosomes, endosomes
2. site of phospholipid synthesis
3. site of glycosylation

15

Glycosylation

1. promotes protein folding
2. can make proteins more resistant to proteolysis
3. plays a role in cell-cell recognition
4. plays a role in cell-cell adhesion
5. plays a role in cell signaling

16

Smooth ER

1. site of fatty acid and steroid synthesis
2. site of drug inactivation and detoxification of other harmful substances
3. calcium storage

17

Golgi Apparatus

1. modifies proteins (glycosylation)
2. packages and transports proteins received from the rough ER (forms secretory vesicles for proteins to be exocytosed; forms membranes vesicles that ferry new molecules to plasma membrane; forms transport vesicles that carry molecules to other organelles)
3. stack of membranous sacs (cis face and trans face)

18

Mitochondria

1. energy production (ATP production)
2. calcium homeostasis
3. plays role in apoptosis (cell suicide)
4. contains circular DNA with genes encoding some proteins that function in the mitochondrion

19

Lysosomes

1. contain digestive enzymes
2. digestion of particles and organelles (autophagy), or other cells (phagocytosis)

20

Peroxisomes

contains enzymes that breakdown lipids and destroy toxic molecules by oxidation

21

Centrosome

1. builds microtubules (component of cytoskeleton)
2. forms mitotic spindle during cell division

22

Levels of Body Organization

Chemical, Cellular, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organismal

23

Chemical Level: Element types?

Carbon, Calcium, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorous, Sulfur

24

Elements come together to form what?

Macromolecules

25

Name the 4 types of macromolecules

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids

26

Cellular Level: 3 Facts

1. Smallest living unit of the body
2. Disease due to cellular processes gone wrong
3. Drugs act at cellular level (binds to proteins and receptors)

27

Tissue Level: Define

Groups of cells work together to perform a particular function

28

Cellular Level: Define

Basic structural and functional unit of organism

29

Identify the 4 types of tissue

Nervous, Muscle, Connective, Epithelial

30

Organ Level: Define

A structure of two or more tissues working together

31

Organ Systems Level: Define

Group of related organs that have a common function

32

12 Organ Systems

Nervous, Muscular, Skeletal, Integumentary, Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Endocrine, Digestive, Urinary, Immune, Lymphatic, Reproductive

33

3 Components of Cytoplasm

Cytosol, Cytoskeleton, Organelles

34

Types of Cytoskeleton

Actin (Microfilaments), Intermediate Filaments, Microtubules

35

Actin: Composition?

Two-stranded filament made of actin protein.

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