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Flashcards in Business 4: IT Fundamentals Deck (97)
1

List the five main components of IT.

- People
- Data
- Hardware
- Software
- Networks

2

Components of Computerized Systems - Hardware.

What is a CPU (central processing unit)?

Control center of the computer system

3

Components of Computerized Systems - Hardware.

What are the two principal components of a CPU?

1) Processor
2) Primary storage

4

In a CPU, what does a processor do?

- Interprets program instructions
- Coordinates input, output, and storage devices (the control unit)
- Performs arithmetic calculations (the arithmetic logic unit)

5

In a CPU, what is the purpose of primary storage?

- Main memory
- Used to store program instructions and data until program instructions can be executed

6

For personal computers, what is primary storage (main memory) further divided into?

- RAM (random access memory)
- ROM (read-only memory)

7

What does RAM (random access memory) do?

- Stores data temporarily while it is being processed

8

Components of Computerized Systems - Hardware.

What is a CPU (central processing unit)?

Control center of the computer system

9

What does RAM (random access memory) do?

- Stores data temporarily while it is being processed

10

What does ROM (read-only memory) do?

Used to permanently store data needed to power the computer

11

Components of Computerized Systems - Hardware.

Give an example of a secondary storage device.

- Hard drive
- Magnetic disk
- Flash drive
- CD-ROM discs
- Optical discs
- Magnetic tape

12

Components of Computerized Systems - Hardware.

Secondary storage devices are a means to do what?

To permanently store programs and data

13

Components of Computerized Systems - Hardware.

What is often used for disk storage currently?

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks)

14

Components of Computerized Systems - Hardware.

What is the basic idea of RAID?

- To combine multiple inexpensive disk drives into an array of disk drives to obtain performance, capacity and reliability that exceed that of a single large disk drive

15

Components of Computerized Systems - Hardware.

What is the basic idea of RAID?

- To combine multiple inexpensive disk drives into an array of disk drives to obtain performance, capacity and reliability that exceed that of a single large disk drive

16

Components of Computerized Systems - Hardware.

What do you call devices that transfer data to or from the CPU but that do not take part in the actual processing of the data?

Peripherals (which include input and output devices)

17

Components of Computerized Systems - Hardware.

What do input devices do?

Supply the data to be process

18

Components of Computerized Systems - Hardware.

Give an example of an input device.

- Keyboard
- Mice
- Scanner
- Magnetic ink character readers (MICR)
- Touch sensitive screens
- Microphones

19

Components of Computerized Systems - Hardware.

What do output devices do?

Transfer data from the processing unit to various output media

20

Components of Computerized Systems - Hardware.

Give an example of an output device.

- printers
- speakers
- cathode ray tubes
- graphic printers

21

Components of Computerized Systems - Hardware.

Give an example of an output device.

- printers
- speakers
- cathode ray tubes
- graphic printers

22

Components of Computerized Systems - Hardware.

What does MIPS stand for?

Millions of instructions per second

23

Components of Computerized Systems - Hardware.

What does MIPS stand for?

Millions of instructions per second

24

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

Software can be divided into what three broad categories?

1) System software
2) Programming languages
3) Application software

25

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What does system software consist of?

Programs that run the computer and support management operations

26

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What does system software consist of?

Programs that run the computer and support management operations

27

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What type of system provides the interface b/w the user and the hardware?

Operating system

28

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What type of system controls all input and output to main memory?

Operating system

29

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What does DBMS stand for?

Database management system

30

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

In organizations that employ mainframe and midrange computer systems, why is having a database management system software package important?

B/c it controls the development, use and maintenance of the databases used by the organization

31

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

In organizations that employ mainframe and midrange computer systems, why is having a database management system software package important?

B/c it controls the development, use and maintenance of the databases used by the organization

32

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

Define bit w/r/t data storage.

a binary digit (0 or 1) with which all computer data is stored

33

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

Define byte w/r/t data storage.

group of normally 8 bits that can rep a number or a letter, with the specific form dependent on what internal representation format is being used

34

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

Sometimes bytes are called what?

Characters

35

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

How many bytes is 1KB?

1KB = 1,000 bytes

36

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

How many bytes is 1MB?

1MB = 1 million bytes

37

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

How many bytes is 1GB?

1GB = 1 billion bytes

38

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

How many bytes is 1TB?

1TB = 1 trillion bytes

39

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What do you call a group of bytes in which a specific data element such as an employee name is stored?

Field

40

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What do you call a group of bytes in which a specific data element such as an employee name is stored?

Field

41

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What do you call a collection of related records, often arranged in some kind of sequence (i.e. customer file made up of customer records and organized by customer number)?

File

42

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What do you call a collection of related records, often arranged in some kind of sequence (i.e. customer file made up of customer records and organized by customer number)?

File

43

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What addressed the issue with traditional file storage?

Databases

44

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What do you call an integrated collection of data records and data files?

Database

45

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

Is a DBMS a database?

NO (it's a tool, a separate computer program that allows an organization to create new databases and use and work with the data in the databases after they have been created)

46

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

Is a DBMS a database?

NO (it's a tool, a separate computer program that allows an organization to create new databases and use and work with the data in the databases after they have been created)

47

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

Give an example of a common DBMS.

Microsoft Access for PCs

48

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What are the four main functions of a DBMS?

1) Database development
2) Database query
3) Database maintenance
4) Application development

49

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What is database development?

- Procedure by which a database admin uses the DBMS to create a new, empty dataase

50

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What is database query?

Process by which end users can retrieve specific info from the database

51

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What is database maintenance?

Updating of the DBMS software and the revision of the database structure to reflect new business needs

52

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What is database maintenance?

Updating of the DBMS software and the revision of the database structure to reflect new business needs

53

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What type of database stores detailed data needed to support the day-to-day operations of an organization?

Operational databases (e.g. customer databases)

54

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What type of databases store data and info extracted from operational databases?

Analytical databases

55

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What type of databases store data from current and previous years, often from both operational and analytical databases?

Data warehouses

56

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What type of databases are physically distributed in some manner on different pieces of local or remote hardware?

Distributed databases

57

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What type of databases are developed by end users at their workstations?

End-user databases (e.g. e-mail, internet downloads)

58

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What type of databases are developed by end users at their workstations?

End-user databases (e.g. e-mail, internet downloads)

59

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

In a relational database, what does referential integrity prevent?

Prevents the deleting of key values in related records (tables)

60

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

Give an example of a modern programming lanaguage.

Java, Visual Basic, C, C++

61

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

Give an example of a modern programming language.

Java, Visual Basic, C, C++

62

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What does application software include?

Includes the diverse group of systems and programs that an organization uses to accomplish its objectives

63

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What does application software include?

Includes the diverse group of systems and programs that an organization uses to accomplish its objectives

64

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What does LAN stand for?

Local access network

65

Components of Computerized Systems - Software.

What do you call a group of interconnected computers, terminals, communications channels, communications processors, and communications software?

Network

66

Components of Computerized Systems - Software - LAN.

Define node

Any device connected to a network

67

Components of Computerized Systems - Software - LAN.

What do you call a node (usually a PC) that is operated by end users?

Workstation

68

Components of Computerized Systems - Software - LAN.

What do you call a node dedicated to providing services or resources to the rest of the network?

Server

69

Components of Computerized Systems - Software - LAN.

What do you call a circuit board installed on a node that allows the node to connect with and communicate over the network?

Network interface card (NIC)

70

Components of Computerized Systems - Software - LAN.

What do you call the physical path b/w nodes on a network?

Transmission Media

71

Components of Computerized Systems - Software - LAN.

What do you call a system that manages communication over a network?

Network operating system

72

Components of Computerized Systems - Software - LAN.

What does NOS stand for?

Network operating system

73

Components of Computerized Systems - Software - LAN.

What device provides remote access and provides a network with the ability to communicate with others?

Communications devices/modems

74

Telephone conversations are what type of signals?

Analog signals

75

Computer communications are what type of signals?

Digital signals

76

Computer communications are what type of signals?

Digital signals

77

What is used to connect segments of a LAN which both use the same set of network protocols?

Bridge

78

What is used to connect segments of a LAN which both use the same set of network protocols?

Bridge

79

What does the topology of a network define?

Physical configuration of the devices and the cables that connect them

80

What four topologies have been employed for LANs (and WANs)?

- Bus
- Ring
- Star
- Tree

81

What four topologies have been employed for LANs (and WANs)?

- Bus
- Ring
- Star
- Tree

82

If any of the devices in a bus topology are down, is the rest of the network affected?

- YES (entire network is down b/c bus networks use a common backbone to connect all of the devices on the network)

83

How are ring networks formed?

- In a ring w/ each device connected to two other devices

84

If any of the devices in a ring topology are down, is the rest of the network affected?

- YES (entire network is down)

85

Give an example of a star topology.

- Home networks
- Telephone systems

86

What is bandwidth?

A measure of a communication medium's info carrying capacity

87

What does FTP stand for?

File transport protocol (a network protocol used to exchange files)

88

What is the name of the current version of IP with 32-bit addresses?

IPv4

89

Does SMTP provide inbound mail transport?

NO (simple mail transfer protocol provides outbound mail transport)

90

Does SMTP provide inbound mail transport?

NO (simple mail transfer protocol provides outbound mail transport)

91

True or false.

In the DBMS, the focus is on data rather than on a particular application. This leads to data independence, data standardization, one-time data entry, data security, and shared data ownership.

True

92

True or false.

The file-oriented system focuses on individual applications, each with its own set of files and with each file physically separate from the other riles.

True

93

True or false.

The file-oriented system focuses on individual applications, each with its own set of files and with each file physically separate from the other files.

True

94

True or false.

The file-oriented system focuses on individual applications, each with its own set of files and with each file physically separate from the other files.

True

95

True or false.

A modem is an example of computer software.

False (a modem is an e-device that allows signals to be sent over phone lines)

96

True or false.

A modem is an example of computer software.

False (a modem is an e-device that allows signals to be sent over phone lines)

97

True or false.

Virtual memory is memory where portions of a program that aren't being executed are stored, but it is not real memory.

True