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Flashcards in C1 - Carbon Chemistry Deck (166):
1

What is a colloid (paint)?

Tiny particles of pigment are dispersed in a liquid. Particles are too small to settle out. Suspended but not dissolved.

2

What does volatile mean?

How easily a liquid evaporates. Particles move faster when heated. Fast moving particles at surface overcome forces of attraction from other particles - evaporate.

3

What is the process called for making an Ester?

Esterification

4

What is the equation for making an ester?

Acid + Alcohol → Ester + Water

5

What is a carboxylic acid?

An acid built around 1 or more carbon atom.

6

Give a method to create an ester...

Mix 10cm³ of ethanoic acid with 10cm³ of ethanol. Add 1cm³ of concentrated sulphuric acid - warm gently. Tip mixture into 150cm³ of sodium carbonate solution - to neutralise. Smell.

7

How can cosmetics be tested?

On animals. Banned in EU and controversial. Some say animals suffer, others say it's worth checking they won't harm humans.

8

What is the symbol equation for thermal decomposition of baking powder?

2NaHCO₃ → Na₂CO₃ + CO₂ + H₂O

9

What are synthetic esters/perfumes?

Esters manufactured to use as flavourings or perfumes. E.g. Combinations of esters that smell of lavender, orange, cinnamon.

10

What is the word equation for thermal decomposition of baking powder?

sodium hydrogencarbonate → sodium carbonate + carbon dioxide + water

11

What is thermal decomposition?

When a substance is broken down into simpler substances by heat. Many reactions use a catalyst.

12

Why must potatoes be cooked?

Humans can't digest cellulose (rigid cell wall). Cooking ruptures cell walls and makes strach cells swell up and spread out. Makes potato softer, more flexible, easier to digest.

13

What happens to proteins when cooked?

They change shape. Energy from cooking breaks some chemical bonds allowing protein to take a different shape. Gives food an edible texture and is irreversible - called denaturing.

14

Why is cooking a chemical change?

Because cooking produces a new substance which can't be changed back. It is irreversible.

15

What does hydrophobic mean?

Doesn't like water. Hydrophobic part bonds to oil molecules.

16

What does hydrophilic mean?

Water loving. Hydrophilic part bonds to water molecules.

17

What are anti-oxidants?

They help to preserve food

18

What is a solution?

A mixture of a solute and a solvent that does not separate out.

19

What is an emulsifier and what does it do?

Help oil and water bind together and stop them separating out. Has two parts - a hydrophobic and hydrophilic part.

20

What are food additives?

They are added to food to make them last longer, taste better and look better.

21

What are flavour enhancers?

Bring out taste and smell of a food without adding any flavour of their own.

22

What is a solute?

Substance which is being dissolved.

23

What is a solvent?

The liquid the solute is being dissolved in.

24

What does soluble mean?

It will dissolve

25

What does insoluble mean?

It won't dissolve

26

What is solubility?

A measure of how much something will dissolve.

27

What can nail varnish also be known as?

Acetone or propanone

28

What is in a paint?

A solvent, binding medium and pigment.

29

What is the solvent for in a paint?

It evaporates when paint dries. Added to make paint thinner and spread easily.

30

What is the pigment for in a paint?

To give the paint its colour

31

What is the binding medium in paint?

It is a liquid that carries the pigment bits and holds them together. When it goes solid, it sticks the pigment to the surface.

32

What are thermochromic pigments and what are they used for?

They are pigments which change colour or become transparent when the temperature changes. They can be used in baby products and kettles.

33

What are thermochromic pigments and what are they used for?

They are pigments which change colour or become transparent when the temperature changes. They can be used in baby products and kettles.

34

What are phosphorescent pigments and what can they be used for?

They absorb light, store it and release it over a period of time. Glow in the dark hands on clocks are safer than radioactive watches.

35

How are polymers formed?

By joining lots of monomers together in a reaction called polymerisation.

36

What conditions are needed for polymerisation?

High pressure and a catalyst

37

What are unsaturated compounds?

Molecules with at least one double covalent bond between carbon atoms.

38

What is addition polymerisation?

Lots of unsaturated monomer molecules (alkenes) can open up their double covalent bond and join together to form polymer chains.

39

What are the properties of a polymer with weak intermolecular forces?

The chains are free to slide over each other which makes the polymer easily stretchable and gives it a low melting point.

40

What are the properties of a polymer with strong intermolecular forces?

They have higher melting points and are rigid, so can't be stretched because the cross links holds the chains firmly together.

41

What can strong and rigid polymers be used for?

Plastic milk bottles (e.g. high density Polyethene can be used).

42

What can light and stretchable polymers be used for?

E.g. Light density polyethene can be used for plastic bags and squeezy bottles - it's not good for anything that will get hot because of its low melting point.

43

What uses does PVC have?

It is strong and durable, and can be made rigid or stretchy. The rigid PVC can make window frames and piping. The stretchy can make synthetic leather.

44

What can polystyrene foam be used for?

Packaging and disposable coffee cups because the trapped air makes a good thermal insulator.

45

What is the problem with synthetic fibres?

Nylon coated with polyurethane doesn't let water vapour through - which means sweat condenses and makes the person uncomfortable. Not breathable

46

What is good about Gore-Tex?

It combines nylon and polyurethane whilst also being breathable. The PTFE film allows water vapout through but stops rain droplets.

47

What are the issues with polymers?

Most aren't biodegradable - waste land and plastic in landfills. Burning them release toxic gases such as sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen cyanide. Recycling is the best but can be expensive.

48

What is a hydrocarbon?

Any compound that is made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms only.

49

What are hydrocarbons held together by?

Strong covalent bonds between the atoms.

50

What bond do alkanes have?

Single covalent bonds

51

What bond do alkenes have?

Double covalent bonds

52

What are saturated compounds?

(Alkanes) only contain single covalent bonds so they cannot join on to any other atoms.

53

What are the first four alkanes?

Methane, ethane, propane, and butane.

54

What are the first three alkenes?

Ethene, propene, and butene.

55

What does bromine water test for?

The orange liquid turns colourless if an alkene is present because the bromine will be added to the double bond making it a dibromo compound in an addition reaction.

56

How is crude oil separated?

Through fractional distillation. Oil is heated until most is gas. This goes to a fractionating column which has a temperature gradient.

57

Which is the hottest part of a fractionating colum?

The bottom

58

Which is the coolest part of a fractionating colum?

The top

59

Which 3 fractions are at the top of the fractionating column?

LPG, followed by Petrol and Naphtha or Kerosene.

60

Which 3 fractions are at the bottom of the fractionating column?

Bitumen and above that is oil, and then diesel.

61

What happens as the size of the hydrocarbon molecule increases?

The boiling point increases, it gets less flammable, it gets more viscous (doesn't easily flow) and it gets less volatile.

62

What is cracking?

Splitting up long chain hydrocarbons into smaller, more useful ones.

63

What is cracking a form of?

Thermal decomposition

64

Why are longer hydrocarbons cracked?

Because there is a higher demand for them. Also it produces lots of alkenes which are used to make polymers.

65

What conditions are needed for cracking?

A powdered catalyst (aluminium oxide) at a temperature of about 400°C-700°C

66

What are the environmental problems of oil?

Oil tanker crashes/oil rig problems can lead to oil slicks. If oil covers birds' feathers it stops them being waterproof so they die of cold/can no longer fly. Detergents can break up oil slicks but can be harmful to wildlife.

67

What are the political problems of oil?

Becomes more expensive meaning countries keep more for them. Those with a large supply have power over other countries - leads to conflicts. Countries without oil/gas may rely on politically unstable places for supply.

68

What are the political problems of oil?

Becomes more expensive meaning countries keep more for them. Those with a large supply have power over other countries - leads to conflicts. Countries without oil/gas may rely on politically unstable places for supply.

69

What should be considered when choosing the best fuel?

Energy value, availability, storage, cost, toxicity, ease of use and pollution.

70

When does complete combustion happen?

When there is plenty of oxygen.

71

When does incomplete combustion happen?

When there isn't enough oxygen.

72

What is the word equation for complete combustion?

hydrocarbon + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+ energy)

73

What is the word equation for incomplete combustion?

hydrocarbon + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water + carbon monoxide + carbon (+ energy)

74

Which type of combustion is safe?

Complete combustion

75

What is carbon monoxide?

A colourless, odourless and poisonous gas .

76

What processes remove carbon dioxide from the air?

Photosynthesis

77

What processes add carbon dioxide from the air?

Respiration, combustion and decay.

78

What causes acid rain?

Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen

79

What causes photochemical smog?

Oxides of nitrogen

80

What is the word equation for a catalytic converter?

carbon monoxide + nitrogen oxide → nitrogen + carbon dioxide

81

What is the symbol equation for a catalytic converter?

2CO + 2NO → N₂ + 2CO₂

82

Which part of an emulsifier is hydrophobic?

Tail

83

Which part of an emulsifier is hydrophilic?

Head

84

Tiny particles of pigment are dispersed in a liquid. Particles are too small to settle out. Suspended but not dissolved.

What is a colloid (paint)?

85

How easily a liquid evaporates. Particles move faster when heated. Fast moving particles at surface overcome forces of attraction from other particles - evaporate.

What does volatile mean?

86

Esterification

What is the process called for making an Ester?

87

Acid + Alcohol → Ester + Water

What is the equation for making an ester?

88

An acid built around 1 or more carbon atom.

What is a carboxylic acid?

89

Mix 10cm³ of ethanoic acid with 10cm³ of ethanol. Add 1cm³ of concentrated sulphuric acid - warm gently. Tip mixture into 150cm³ of sodium carbonate solution - to neutralise. Smell.

Give a method to create an ester...

90

On animals. Banned in EU and controversial. Some say animals suffer, others say it's worth checking they won't harm humans.

How can cosmetics be tested?

91

2NaHCO₃ → Na₂CO₃ + CO₂ + H₂O

What is the symbol equation for thermal decomposition of baking powder?

92

Esters manufactured to use as flavourings or perfumes. E.g. Combinations of esters that smell of lavender, orange, cinnamon.

What are synthetic esters/perfumes?

93

sodium hydrogencarbonate → sodium carbonate + carbon dioxide + water

What is the word equation for thermal decomposition of baking powder?

94

When a substance is broken down into simpler substances by heat. Many reactions use a catalyst.

What is thermal decomposition?

95

Humans can't digest cellulose (rigid cell wall). Cooking ruptures cell walls and makes strach cells swell up and spread out. Makes potato softer, more flexible, easier to digest.

Why must potatoes be cooked?

96

They change shape. Energy from cooking breaks some chemical bonds allowing protein to take a different shape. Gives food an edible texture and is irreversible - called denaturing.

What happens to proteins when cooked?

97

Because cooking produces a new substance which can't be changed back. It is irreversible.

Why is cooking a chemical change?

98

Doesn't like water. Hydrophobic part bonds to oil molecules.

What does hydrophobic mean?

99

Water loving. Hydrophilic part bonds to water molecules.

What does hydrophilic mean?

100

They help to preserve food

What are anti-oxidants?

101

A mixture of a solute and a solvent that does not separate out.

What is a solution?

102

Help oil and water bind together and stop them separating out. Has two parts - a hydrophobic and hydrophilic part.

What is an emulsifier and what does it do?

103

They are added to food to make them last longer, taste better and look better.

What are food additives?

104

Bring out taste and smell of a food without adding any flavour of their own.

What are flavour enhancers?

105

Substance which is being dissolved.

What is a solute?

106

The liquid the solute is being dissolved in.

What is a solvent?

107

It will dissolve

What does soluble mean?

108

It won't dissolve

What does insoluble mean?

109

A measure of how much something will dissolve.

What is solubility?

110

Acetone or propanone

What can nail varnish also be known as?

111

A solvent, binding medium and pigment.

What is in a paint?

112

It evaporates when paint dries. Added to make paint thinner and spread easily.

What is the solvent for in a paint?

113

To give the paint its colour

What is the pigment for in a paint?

114

It is a liquid that carries the pigment bits and holds them together. When it goes solid, it sticks the pigment to the surface.

What is the binding medium in paint?

115

They are pigments which change colour or become transparent when the temperature changes. They can be used in baby products and kettles.

What are thermochromic pigments and what are they used for?

116

They are pigments which change colour or become transparent when the temperature changes. They can be used in baby products and kettles.

What are thermochromic pigments and what are they used for?

117

They absorb light, store it and release it over a period of time. Glow in the dark hands on clocks are safer than radioactive watches.

What are phosphorescent pigments and what can they be used for?

118

By joining lots of monomers together in a reaction called polymerisation.

How are polymers formed?

119

High pressure and a catalyst

What conditions are needed for polymerisation?

120

Molecules with at least one double covalent bond between carbon atoms.

What are unsaturated compounds?

121

Lots of unsaturated monomer molecules (alkenes) can open up their double covalent bond and join together to form polymer chains.

What is addition polymerisation?

122

The chains are free to slide over each other which makes the polymer easily stretchable and gives it a low melting point.

What are the properties of a polymer with weak intermolecular forces?

123

They have higher melting points and are rigid, so can't be stretched because the cross links holds the chains firmly together.

What are the properties of a polymer with strong intermolecular forces?

124

Plastic milk bottles (e.g. high density Polyethene can be used).

What can strong and rigid polymers be used for?

125

E.g. Light density polyethene can be used for plastic bags and squeezy bottles - it's not good for anything that will get hot because of its low melting point.

What can light and stretchable polymers be used for?

126

It is strong and durable, and can be made rigid or stretchy. The rigid PVC can make window frames and piping. The stretchy can make synthetic leather.

What uses does PVC have?

127

Packaging and disposable coffee cups because the trapped air makes a good thermal insulator.

What can polystyrene foam be used for?

128

Nylon coated with polyurethane doesn't let water vapour through - which means sweat condenses and makes the person uncomfortable. Not breathable

What is the problem with synthetic fibres?

129

It combines nylon and polyurethane whilst also being breathable. The PTFE film allows water vapout through but stops rain droplets.

What is good about Gore-Tex?

130

Most aren't biodegradable - waste land and plastic in landfills. Burning them release toxic gases such as sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen cyanide. Recycling is the best but can be expensive.

What are the issues with polymers?

131

Any compound that is made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms only.

What is a hydrocarbon?

132

Strong covalent bonds between the atoms.

What are hydrocarbons held together by?

133

Single covalent bonds

What bond do alkanes have?

134

Double covalent bonds

What bond do alkenes have?

135

(Alkanes) only contain single covalent bonds so they cannot join on to any other atoms.

What are saturated compounds?

136

Methane, ethane, propane, and butane.

What are the first four alkanes?

137

Ethene, propene, and butene.

What are the first three alkenes?

138

The orange liquid turns colourless if an alkene is present because the bromine will be added to the double bond making it a dibromo compound in an addition reaction.

What does bromine water test for?

139

Through fractional distillation. Oil is heated until most is gas. This goes to a fractionating column which has a temperature gradient.

How is crude oil separated?

140

The bottom

Which is the hottest part of a fractionating colum?

141

The top

Which is the coolest part of a fractionating colum?

142

LPG, followed by Petrol and Naphtha or Kerosene.

Which 3 fractions are at the top of the fractionating column?

143

Bitumen and above that is oil, and then diesel.

Which 3 fractions are at the bottom of the fractionating column?

144

The boiling point increases, it gets less flammable, it gets more viscous (doesn't easily flow) and it gets less volatile.

What happens as the size of the hydrocarbon molecule increases?

145

Splitting up long chain hydrocarbons into smaller, more useful ones.

What is cracking?

146

Thermal decomposition

What is cracking a form of?

147

Because there is a higher demand for them. Also it produces lots of alkenes which are used to make polymers.

Why are longer hydrocarbons cracked?

148

A powdered catalyst (aluminium oxide) at a temperature of about 400°C-700°C

What conditions are needed for cracking?

149

Oil tanker crashes/oil rig problems can lead to oil slicks. If oil covers birds' feathers it stops them being waterproof so they die of cold/can no longer fly. Detergents can break up oil slicks but can be harmful to wildlife.

What are the environmental problems of oil?

150

Becomes more expensive meaning countries keep more for them. Those with a large supply have power over other countries - leads to conflicts. Countries without oil/gas may rely on politically unstable places for supply.

What are the political problems of oil?

151

Becomes more expensive meaning countries keep more for them. Those with a large supply have power over other countries - leads to conflicts. Countries without oil/gas may rely on politically unstable places for supply.

What are the political problems of oil?

152

Energy value, availability, storage, cost, toxicity, ease of use and pollution.

What should be considered when choosing the best fuel?

153

When there is plenty of oxygen.

When does complete combustion happen?

154

When there isn't enough oxygen.

When does incomplete combustion happen?

155

hydrocarbon + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+ energy)

What is the word equation for complete combustion?

156

hydrocarbon + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water + carbon monoxide + carbon (+ energy)

What is the word equation for incomplete combustion?

157

Complete combustion

Which type of combustion is safe?

158

A colourless, odourless and poisonous gas .

What is carbon monoxide?

159

Photosynthesis

What processes remove carbon dioxide from the air?

160

Respiration, combustion and decay.

What processes add carbon dioxide from the air?

161

Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen

What causes acid rain?

162

Oxides of nitrogen

What causes photochemical smog?

163

carbon monoxide + nitrogen oxide → nitrogen + carbon dioxide

What is the word equation for a catalytic converter?

164

2CO + 2NO → N₂ + 2CO₂

What is the symbol equation for a catalytic converter?

165

Tail

Which part of an emulsifier is hydrophobic?

166

Head

Which part of an emulsifier is hydrophilic?