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Flashcards in C4 - The Periodic Table Deck (112):
1

What is a neutron?

Has 0 charge and a relative atomic mass of 1

2

What is an electron?

Has a charge of -1 and a relative atomic mass of 0.0005

3

What is a proton?

Has a charge of +1 and a relative atomic mass of 1

4

What is the atomic number?

(BOTTOM NUMBER) The number of protons (or number of electrons)

5

What is the mass number?

(TOP NUMBER) Number of neutrons plus number of protons

6

What is the order of reactivity for Group 1?

As they go down the group, the reactivity increases (get more reactive)

7

What is the order of reactivity for Group 7?

As they go down the group, the halogens become less reactive

8

What produces a white precipitate?

Chloride ions

9

What produces a cream precipitate?

Bromide ions

10

What produces a pale yellow precipitate?

Iodide ions

11

What are the processes in water purification?

Filtration, Sedimentation, Chlorination

12

What is filtration?

A layer of sand or gravel filters remaining small particles and sometimes removes microbes

13

What is sedimentation?

Chemicals are added to make solid particles and bacteria settle

14

What is chlorination?

Chlorine is added to kill remaining microbes

15

What pollutants are found in water?

Nitrates - from fertilisers via eutrophication Lead compounds - from water pipes to houses Pesticides - from spraying crops

16

What is a superconductor?

Materials which can conduct electricity with little or no resistance

17

What are the two types of superconductor?

Type I - metals Type 2 - alloys

18

What are the benefits of superconductors?

Loss free power transmission, superfast electronic circuits and powerful electromagnets

19

What are the difficulties with superconductors?

They only work at very low temperatures, limiting their use and superconductors that work at room temperature need to be developed.

20

What is the Period number?

(ROWS - ACROSS) Number of electron shells

21

What is the Group number?

(COLUMN - DOWN) Number of electrons in outer shell

22

What is an isotope?

An atom of the same element but with different mass numbers (different number of neutrons)

23

Give one example of an isotope...

Carbon-12 and Carbon-14

24

What did John Dalton do?

(1803) Said atoms where solid spheres and there was a different sphere for each element

25

What did J.J Thomson discover?

(1897) That atoms weren't solid spheres and there were negatively charged particles - electrons. Theory was called the "Plum Pudding Model".

26

How did Rutherford describe the atom?

(1911) Theory of the Nuclear Atom - Gold Foil experiment found that the positive nucleus was surrounded by negative electrons after positive particles passed through the gold, rather than be deflected.

27

What did Niels Bohr describe?

(1913) Electrons had fixed orbits and fixed energy which prevented the electrons being attracted to the positive nucleus. They orbited in shells.

28

What are the properties of ionic compounds?

Typically dissolve in water, conduct electricity when in a solution/molten, have very high melting points and their structures are described as giant ionic lattices.

29

What is a covalent bond?

A shared pair of electrons

30

lithium + water

lithium hydroxide + hydrogen (2Li + 2H₂O → 2LiOH + H₂)

31

sodium + water

sodium hydroxide + hydrogen (2Na + 2H₂O → 2NaOH + H₂)

32

potassium + water

potassium hydroxide + hydrogen (2K + 2H₂O → 2KOH + H₂)

33

Why is potassium more reactive than lithium?

Because potassium is able to lose its outer electron easier than lithium because the larger radius means that the force of attraction from the nucleus is weaker.

34

What colour flame does lithium produce?

Red or crimson

35

What colour flame does sodium produce?

Orange

36

What colour flame does potassium produce?

Purple or lilac

37

What is the method for the flame test?

Wash the nichrome wire to clean and make compound stick. Dip into metal compound and hold in Bunsen Burner to produce coloured flame. Repeat with different metal compound.

38

What are halogens?

Salt formers' - they (Group 7s) react with Group 1 to make salts

39

Potassium + chlorine

potassium chloride (2K + Cl₂ → 2KCl)

40

Sodium + chlorine

sodium chloride (2Na + Cl₂ → 2NaCl)

41

Potassium + bromine

potassium bromide (2K + Br₂ → 2KBr )

42

Complete and what is this an example of: Cl₂ + 2NaBr

2NaCl + Br₂ an example of a displacement reaction

43

What elements are bonded by covalent bonds?

Non metals. E.g. Hydrogen (H₂) or Carbon Dioxide (CO₂)

44

Which elements are bonded ionically?

A metal and a non metal. E.g. Magnesium and oxygen forms magnesium oxide.

45

What are the properties of Group 1 Metals?

Low melting point and boiling point. Low density (lithium, sodium and potassium float on water). Very soft - can be cut with a knife.

46

Describe chlorine at room temperature...

Fairly reactuve, poisonous green gas (low boiling point)

47

Describe bromine at room temperature...

A dense, poisonous orange liquid

48

Describe iodine at room temperature...

A dark grey crystalline solid (high boiling point)

49

Why are metals strong and able to bend into different shapes?

High tensile strength makes them hard to break. Can be hammered to different shapes because they are malleable.

50

How are metals bonded?

With strong metallic bonds. Strong bond between delocalised electrons and positive ions. Outer electrons of each atom can move freely - delocalised and makes them good conductors of heat and electricity.

51

What can transition metals be used for?

Catalysts - e.g. Iorn is used in Haber Process and nickel is used in hydrogenation of alkenes (making margarine).

52

What colour are iron and copper compounds?

USUALLY: Iron (II) = light green Iron (III) = orange/brown Copper = blue

53

What do transition metal carbonates usually thermally decompose into?

A metal oxide and carbon dioxide - usually results in a colour change

54

What is a precipitate?

Where two solutions react and as solid forms in the solution

55

What solution is used to test for sulphate ions?

Barium chloride - if a white precipitate forms then sulphate ions are present

56

What solution is used to test halide ions?

Silver nitrate solution - a coloured precipitate will form if chloride, bromide, or iodide ions are present.

57

Has 0 charge and a relative atomic mass of 1

What is a neutron?

58

Has a charge of -1 and a relative atomic mass of 0.0005

What is an electron?

59

Has a charge of +1 and a relative atomic mass of 1

What is a proton?

60

(BOTTOM NUMBER) The number of protons (or number of electrons)

What is the atomic number?

61

(TOP NUMBER) Number of neutrons plus number of protons

What is the mass number?

62

As they go down the group, the reactivity increases (get more reactive)

What is the order of reactivity for Group 1?

63

As they go down the group, the halogens become less reactive

What is the order of reactivity for Group 7?

64

Chloride ions

What produces a white precipitate?

65

Bromide ions

What produces a cream precipitate?

66

Iodide ions

What produces a pale yellow precipitate?

67

Filtration, Sedimentation, Chlorination

What are the processes in water purification?

68

A layer of sand or gravel filters remaining small particles and sometimes removes microbes

What is filtration?

69

Chemicals are added to make solid particles and bacteria settle

What is sedimentation?

70

Chlorine is added to kill remaining microbes

What is chlorination?

71

Nitrates - from fertilisers via eutrophication Lead compounds - from water pipes to houses Pesticides - from spraying crops

What pollutants are found in water?

72

Materials which can conduct electricity with little or no resistance

What is a superconductor?

73

Type I - metals Type 2 - alloys

What are the two types of superconductor?

74

Loss free power transmission, superfast electronic circuits and powerful electromagnets

What are the benefits of superconductors?

75

They only work at very low temperatures, limiting their use and superconductors that work at room temperature need to be developed.

What are the difficulties with superconductors?

76

(ROWS - ACROSS) Number of electron shells

What is the Period number?

77

(COLUMN - DOWN) Number of electrons in outer shell

What is the Group number?

78

An atom of the same element but with different mass numbers (different number of neutrons)

What is an isotope?

79

Carbon-12 and Carbon-14

Give one example of an isotope...

80

(1803) Said atoms where solid spheres and there was a different sphere for each element

What did John Dalton do?

81

(1897) That atoms weren't solid spheres and there were negatively charged particles - electrons. Theory was called the "Plum Pudding Model".

What did J.J Thomson discover?

82

(1911) Theory of the Nuclear Atom - Gold Foil experiment found that the positive nucleus was surrounded by negative electrons after positive particles passed through the gold, rather than be deflected.

How did Rutherford describe the atom?

83

(1913) Electrons had fixed orbits and fixed energy which prevented the electrons being attracted to the positive nucleus. They orbited in shells.

What did Niels Bohr describe?

84

Typically dissolve in water, conduct electricity when in a solution/molten, have very high melting points and their structures are described as giant ionic lattices.

What are the properties of ionic compounds?

85

A shared pair of electrons

What is a covalent bond?

86

lithium hydroxide + hydrogen (2Li + 2H₂O → 2LiOH + H₂)

lithium + water

87

sodium hydroxide + hydrogen (2Na + 2H₂O → 2NaOH + H₂)

sodium + water

88

potassium hydroxide + hydrogen (2K + 2H₂O → 2KOH + H₂)

potassium + water

89

Because potassium is able to lose its outer electron easier than lithium because the larger radius means that the force of attraction from the nucleus is weaker.

Why is potassium more reactive than lithium?

90

Red or crimson

What colour flame does lithium produce?

91

Orange

What colour flame does sodium produce?

92

Purple or lilac

What colour flame does potassium produce?

93

Wash the nichrome wire to clean and make compound stick. Dip into metal compound and hold in Bunsen Burner to produce coloured flame. Repeat with different metal compound.

What is the method for the flame test?

94

Salt formers' - they (Group 7s) react with Group 1 to make salts

What are halogens?

95

potassium chloride (2K + Cl₂ → 2KCl)

Potassium + chlorine

96

sodium chloride (2Na + Cl₂ → 2NaCl)

Sodium + chlorine

97

potassium bromide (2K + Br₂ → 2KBr )

Potassium + bromine

98

2NaCl + Br₂ an example of a displacement reaction

Complete and what is this an example of: Cl₂ + 2NaBr

99

Non metals. E.g. Hydrogen (H₂) or Carbon Dioxide (CO₂)

What elements are bonded by covalent bonds?

100

A metal and a non metal. E.g. Magnesium and oxygen forms magnesium oxide.

Which elements are bonded ionically?

101

Low melting point and boiling point. Low density (lithium, sodium and potassium float on water). Very soft - can be cut with a knife.

What are the properties of Group 1 Metals?

102

Fairly reactuve, poisonous green gas (low boiling point)

Describe chlorine at room temperature...

103

A dense, poisonous orange liquid

Describe bromine at room temperature...

104

A dark grey crystalline solid (high boiling point)

Describe iodine at room temperature...

105

High tensile strength makes them hard to break. Can be hammered to different shapes because they are malleable.

Why are metals strong and able to bend into different shapes?

106

With strong metallic bonds. Strong bond between delocalised electrons and positive ions. Outer electrons of each atom can move freely - delocalised and makes them good conductors of heat and electricity.

How are metals bonded?

107

Catalysts - e.g. Iorn is used in Haber Process and nickel is used in hydrogenation of alkenes (making margarine).

What can transition metals be used for?

108

USUALLY: Iron (II) = light green Iron (III) = orange/brown Copper = blue

What colour are iron and copper compounds?

109

A metal oxide and carbon dioxide - usually results in a colour change

What do transition metal carbonates usually thermally decompose into?

110

Where two solutions react and as solid forms in the solution

What is a precipitate?

111

Barium chloride - if a white precipitate forms then sulphate ions are present

What solution is used to test for sulphate ions?

112

Silver nitrate solution - a coloured precipitate will form if chloride, bromide, or iodide ions are present.

What solution is used to test halide ions?